PSM Veterinary Research https://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/vetres <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Veterinary Research (ISSN: 2518-2714) is peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary, international journal that publishes research on all aspects of veterinary and animal sciences.</p> PSM en-US PSM Veterinary Research 2518-2714 Chronic Metritis in Small Ruminants: A Review https://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/vetres/article/view/595 <p>The peri-partum period is a very delicate period in the life of reproductive females. During postpartum uterine involution, the uterus undergoes major changes. Infection by opportunistic bacteria is normal, almost systematic, but the natural defences usually eliminate these. When there is an imbalance between the self-defence capacity of the uterus and the pathogenicity of the bacteria, the latter can determine various uterine infections including chronic metritis. As metritis is a multifactorial disease, it is better to identify all the factors that increase the risk of the disease than to treat it. This review brings together the literature on risk factors for chronic metritis in small ruminants to explain the causal relationship between each risk factor and the disease. The prevention of chronic metritis requires the inclusion of these risk factors in the breeding strategy. Monitoring of reproduction by the veterinarian is therefore essential. In summary, some factors are specific to one form of chronic metritis and others are common to all chronic metritis, but all make the disease more severe and more frequent.</p> Claude Landry Makuetamang Doumtsop Justin Kouamo Nicolas Yanou Njintang Landry Che Fru Copyright (c) 2021 PSM https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 3 74 88 Efficacy of Volatile Oils against Salmonella Isolated from Gizzard in Poultry https://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/vetres/article/view/580 <p><em>Salmonella</em> infection in poultry is one of the most important bacterial diseases which cause heavy economic loss through reduced production and mortality. Transmission of Salmonella is by direct contact with contaminated food of animal origins such as chicken meat and eggs. This study was conducted from April 2018 to May 2018 at store Ali Mohsen in Sana'a city, Yemen. A total of 60 samples of poultry gizzard were collected using a sterile sharp from store Ali Mohsen it was of Amran (20) samples, Thamar (10) samples, Hiziaz (20) samples, Al-hudaidah (10) samples and put it in sterile bottles. Salmonella were isolated from 40 (67%) gizzard samples while 20 (33%) gizzard samples were Negative. Positive samples were 14 (35%) from Amran, Hiziaz 12 (30%), Thamar 10 (25%) and 4 (10%) samples were positive from Alhudaidah. Volatile oils of <em>Origanum majorana</em>, <em>Nepeta delflersina,</em> and<em> Mentha x piperita </em>had antibacterial activities against <em>Salmonella</em> sp while isolated strains of <em>Salmonella</em> sp were resistant against volatile oils such as <em>Coriandrum sativum, Elettaria cardamomum, Trachys permum </em>and <em>Artemi judaica sia. </em>The volatile oil obtained from <em>N. deflersiana</em> contains sixteen identified and three unidentified constituents. The major constituents were 4a alpha, 7 alpha, 7a alpha-Nepetalactone (77.7%). The main chemical constituent in the volatile oil obtained from <em>O. majorana</em> was Terpinen-4-ol (35.2%). The main constituent of <em>Mentha x piperita</em> volatile oil was Limonene (7.9%). <em>N. deflersiana</em>, <em>O.majorana</em>, and <em>M. x piperita</em> volatile oils showed an inhibition zone against the growth of <em>Salmonella </em>isolates at 30µl.</p> Maher Ali Al.Maqtari Ebtesam Hassan Lutf Alhamzi Copyright (c) 2021 PSM https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 6 3 50 58 The Effect of Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil versus Aloe perryi extracts on Rat Liver and Kidney Tissues https://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/vetres/article/view/581 <p>The present study was designed to compare the side effects of Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil with that of <em>Aloe perryi</em> leaves gel extracts. Twenty female albino rats (100 – 110 g) were used and assigned to 4 groups: group (I); control which received 1000 mg/kg distilled water for 30 days, group (II); intraperitoneally with 1.5 mg/kg of Cisplatin and 20 mg/kg 5-FU for 14 days; group (III) treated by <em>Aloe</em> aqueous extract (1000 mg/kg for 30 days), group (IV) treated by <em>Aloe</em> methanolic extract (1000 mg/kg for 30 days), at the end of the experiment they were anesthetized and liver and kidney were removed for histopathological studies. There was a decrement in bodyweight and relative liver and kidney weight recorded in Cisplatin and 5-FU group when compared with Aloe aqueous and methanolic extracts and control group. Histopathological investigation of the liver and kidney tissue of the control, <em>Aloe</em> aqueous, and methanolic extracts groups were found to be normal in structure. However, Congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cells infiltration, dilatation, fatty changes, vacuolation, fibrosis, and pyknosis showed histopathological changes in liver tissue of group II (intraperitoneally with Cisplatin and 5-FU for). Moreover, the histopathological analysis showed that the glomerular shrinkage, dilation, degeneration, congestion, vacuolation, and tubular shrinkage were the kidney histopathological changes in group II. It was concluded that <em>A. perryi</em> aqueous and methanolic leaves extracts have no side effects on liver and kidney tissues of rats as compared to Cisplatin and 5- fluorouracil.</p> Anisa H. Almansory Elham A.S. Al-Shaibani Fatma M. H. Shediwah Hassan M. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 PSM https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 6 3 59 73