PSM Veterinary Research 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 PSM Veterinary Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Veterinary Research (ISSN: 2518-2714) is peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary, international journal that publishes research on all aspects of veterinary and animal sciences.</p> Seroprevalence of Equine Piroplasmosis under Tropical and Subtropical Conditions in Mexico 2022-04-27T02:27:09+00:00 Sergio Orlando Yong-Wong Cesar Alberto Meza-Herrera Alan Sebastián Alvarado-Espino Edgar Olivas-Calderon Irais Castillo-Maldonado Viridiana Contreras-Villarreal Rafael Rodríguez-Martínez Francisco Gerardo Véliz-Deras Vicente Homero Gonzalez-Alvarez <p>The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of <em>Theileria equi</em> and <em>Babesia caballi</em> and the risk factors for of the diseases in horses under subtropical and tropical conditions in Mexico. During spring 2015, horses from Coahuila (n=100) and Chiapas (n=75), showing characteristic clinical symptoms were selected for sampling. Antibodies to <em>T. equi</em> and <em>B. caballi</em>, were detected throughout cELISA. Subtropical conditions with 2% of <em>T. equi, </em>0% of <em>B. caballi</em> and tropical conditions with 80.82% of <em>T. equi</em>, and 31.50% of <em>B. caballi.</em> No differences (P&gt;0.05) occurred between the sexes, a trend was observed as horses were younger (51% and 36%; P=0.06). The most prevalent hemoparasite occurred under tropical conditions with <em>T. equi</em>. Effective diagnostic systems and optimization of preventive and control programmes must be emphasized to reduce the risk of infection by the pathogens.</p> 2022-05-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM Method of Bill Trimming can Affect the Behaviour, Performance, and Welfare of Mule Duck 2022-04-10T16:43:30+00:00 Fatma A.M. Ahmed <p>In the poultry industry, debeaking is an efficient strategy to reduce feather pecking and cannibalism. For this study, researcher compared the behavioural, performance, and well-being effects of two debeaking consequences on Mule ducks. In this study, 15-day-old Mule ducks were separated into three groups named: control, scissor, and hot searing. The ducks were weighed every week. Scanning was used to evaluate ducks' behaviour, and feather condition was scored on a scale of 0 to 3. There were no significant variations in behavioural patterns like drinking and preening across the treatment groups (P&gt;0.05). Feeding, sitting, sleeping, walking, pecking the environment and pecking other ducks were all significantly reduced in the hot searing group as compared to that of control and scissor groups. However, the group that was subjected to the hot searing experienced a significant increase in standing behaviour. Compared to the other groups, hot searing debeaking showed higher average daily, weekly, and ultimate weight gains (g). The type of debeaking had no effect on the ducks' average viability. By week four, control ducks had lower feather scores than the other two groups, and they continued to decline more quickly than the feathers of the trimmed ducks (P&lt;0.05). Even though both techniques of trimming cause acute pain, it appears that using scissors is preferred as it leads to more weight gain in ducks and less beak-related behaviour in ducks, but it is still successful in reducing feather pecking damage.</p> 2022-04-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM Metabolic Profiles Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infestation in Goats and Sheep in Cameroon 2022-05-01T00:35:57+00:00 Nankam Chimi Roland Justin Kouamo Kouengoua Kouengoua Armelle Prudence Grace Jedida Toukem Tchinze Ferdinand Ngoula <p>Toxoplasmosis has important implications for animal productivity and health, as well as for human health and welfare. The present study was to identify the metabolic factors associated with <em>Toxoplasma gondii </em>infestation in sheep and goats in Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 200 small ruminant farms during a period from April to October 2021. A total of 1061 small ruminants were sampled and the serums obtained were analyzed first with the indirect multi-species ELISA for toxoplasmosis and then once the groups were formed, some metabolic parameters were analyzed in both the control and the <em>T. gondii </em>infested animals groups in order to highlight the parameters associated with toxoplasmic infestation. 329 animals tested positive for <em>T. gondii</em> with an individual prevalence of 31.01% (95% CI: 28.23 - 33.79). A positive and significant association was obtained between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and variations in albumin (p=0.015), ALT (p=0.001) and progesterone (p=0.03). Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and region (p=0.0001), species (p=0.0001), sex (p=0.0002), age (p=0.0002) and breed (p=0.01), production targets (p=0.04) and hygiene level (p=0.04). Several physiological factors were associated with significant (p&lt;0.05) variation in albumin, ALT and progesterone in <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> infested small ruminants, including age and gestation. Infestation of sheep and goats with <em>T. gondii</em> promotes severe increase in albumin and alanine aminotransferase, and significant hypoprogesteronemia that can lead to abortion. Understanding the factors associated with this infestation is essential for the implementation of effective control programs to reduce its impact on small ruminant farms.</p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM Resumption of Ovarian Cyclicity in Postpartum Beetal X Dwarf Goats 2022-05-02T13:53:40+00:00 Muhammad Shahzad Rehana Kausar <p>The resumption of postpartum (pp) ovarian activity was assessed based on serum progesterone (P<sub>4</sub>) concentration and reproductive behavior in crossbred (Beetal x Dwarf) goats. Fourteen multiparous goats were observed for evident reproductive activities, such as placental expulsion, lochia clearance, tightness of the sacrosciatic ligament, restoration of ovarian activity, and the onset of the first pp ovulation immediately after parturition. For P<sub>4</sub> analysis, serum samples were obtained every third day till day 60 pp. A fertile buck was used to confirm the commencement of estrus in pp goats. The average duration of fetal membrane expulsion was 118.5 ± 66.7 mins. On day 3.4 ± 1.08, the sacrosciatic ligament underwent full constriction. Lochia was cleared entirely in 4.9 ± 3.8 days pp. Twenty-one percent of the goats had estrus signs preceding to ovulation at a mean interval of 50.6 ± 1.5 days, whilst the other goats ovulated silently (no estrus signs) within 60 days. Concentration of serum P<sub>4</sub> depicted that ovarian cyclicity restarted on day 55.9 ± 5.7 pp. On days 12, 24, and 30, three P<sub>4</sub> peaks were observed prior to ovulation. Moreover, the average baseline and peak P<sub>4</sub> concentrations were 0.62 and 3.15 ng/ml, respectively. According to our investigation, normally the pp for Beetal x Dwarf goats under the conventional faming conditions is not more than two months.</p> 2022-06-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM Early Feed Restriction Can Affect the Behavior and Welfare of Mule Ducks 2022-04-25T07:59:54+00:00 Fatma A.M. Ahmed <p>The analysis of feeding behavior is crucial for animal farming and output. This study aimed to determine the influence of the feeding regime on behavior, welfare indices, as well as growth performance of Mule ducks. The study employed 48 one-day-old Mule ducklings, each wing labelled and housed in two groups of 24 ducklings. The first group received ad libitum feed while the second group received a feed restriction (FR) regime. The feed restriction caused increased feeding, gentle and severe feather pecking, and decreased standing, resting, and preening. At 7 weeks of age, the mean walking score differed between the ad libitum and limited feed groups, as did the mean standing score at 5 and 7 weeks. The feather score changed significantly with age (P0&lt;001). The cleanliness of the nostrils decreased with age, whereas scores for the neck and rump increased. Most duck welfare measures concerning cleanliness and gait have decreased in the feed restriction group, except for nostrils. The breast and undertail scores statistically increased at 3–7 weeks, then fell from 5 to 7 weeks. The number of ducks with 1 and 2 gait scores increased with age, whereas ducks with the same footpad scores decreased. Most of the ducks had a feather quality score of zero, whereas ducks with a score of one increased with increasing age, but none of them had a head feather quality score of two at any age. In terms of cleanliness, As the ducks aged, the proportion of ducks scoring 1 increased, with the exception of nostrils and neck, where the proportion of ducks scoring 1 fell from 5 to 7 weeks. Except for nostril cleanliness and gait, the feed restriction group had significantly lower welfare scores. At 2–4 weeks of age, the feed restriction group had a considerably greater mean body weight than the ad libitum group, but at 5–7 weeks, the difference was reversed. At all ages, except for two weeks, the feed restriction group's mean body weight gain was lower than the open food access group's at all ages. On average, the feed conversion ratio was higher in the restricted group at 4 weeks than at 3, 5, and 7 weeks. A small feed restriction may help animals gain weight and have a good feed conversion ratio, which helps keep feed costs down and prevent metabolic syndrome. It is possible to set up a feed restriction plan that will improve ducks' welfare but not hurt their health scores.</p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM Prevalence of Surgical Affections and their Risk Factors in Goats in Selected Upazilas of Chuadanga District, Bangladesh 2022-01-28T20:32:11+00:00 Rukhsana Amin Runa Abdus Salam Mst. Antora Akter Md. Mizanur Rahman <p>Surgical affections are frequent in goats, and they have a significant detrimental impact on the animals' development, production, and survivorship, resulting in significant financial losses. The current study assessed the prevalence of surgical affections and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of surgical affections in goats at Alamdanga and Chuadanga Sadar Upazila in Chuadanga district. The surgical affections were classified on the basis of age, sex, seasons, and breed. Simple descriptive statistics were applied to analyze the data. The prevalence of castration was higher among all the surgical affections in both Upazilas. The other common surgical affections were subcutaneous cysts (11.65% and 13.59%), fractures (9.71% and 10.68%), myiasis (9.71% and 8.35%), and wounds (7.77% and 8.74%), followed by an abscess (5.83% and 4.08%), gid disease (3.88% and 2.91%), overgrowth of the hoof (3.88% and 2.52%), navel ill (1.94% and 2.91%), atresia ani (2.91% and 2.33%), and dog bite (1.94% and 1.17%) in Alamdanga and Chuadanga Sadar Upazila, respectively. Gangrenous mastitis was very low in both Upazilas which was 1.94% only. In both Upazilas, the navel ill and castration were more in young goats, whereas gangrenous mastitis, overgrown hoofs, and gid disease were greater in adult goats. According to sex variation, gid disease was more in females, and sub-cutaneous cysts navel ill and atresia ani were in male goats. The surgical affections were highest in summer (44.66% and 40.97%), followed by the rainy season (27.77% and 30.87%) and winter (27.57% and 28.16%) in Alamdanga and Chuadanga Sadar Upazila, respectively. In this study, a higher occurrence of all surgical affections was found in Black Bengal goats compared to Jamunapari in both Upazilas. This present study will help to understand the prevalence of various surgical conditions in this field, depending on age, sex, breed, and season, which will help to reduce the number of surgical conditions in goats in these areas.</p> 2022-02-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM The Impact of Stress on Laboratory Animals and Variability in Research Outcome 2022-04-08T10:09:23+00:00 Fatma A.M. Ahmed <p>The laboratory environment offers an enormous amount of chronic and/or acute stress, which can be both social and physiological and require the animal to adapt to allostatic balance. Several aspects of the laboratory environment, such as confinement, cause significant and recurrent stress in laboratory animals, which is inescapable. Several factors such as transportation, handling, noise, restrictions, experimental procedures, and may cause stress which is difficult to manage. It can be even more challenging in the absence of adequate habituation/ desensitization. These may result in several physiological as well as psychological challenges, triggered by the activation of several neuroendocrine pathways, with a variety of complications such as physiological and/or psychological damage. This type of damage may result in stereotypic behaviours like pacing and circling, self-harm, and physiological consequences such as inflammatory reactions, immune dysfunction, susceptibility to diseases, and metabolic disorders. Moreover, some of the stress-mediated outcomes are epigenetic which makes the consequences transgenerational, that is the biology of animals whose immediate generations have been captured in the wild and/or have endured stress in laboratories could be epigenetically transformed compared to their wild counterparts. It is thought that lab animals have different physiological, epigenetic, and psychological differences that make it hard to extrapolate findings from animal studies to humans. These stress factors and their consequences need to be recognized sufficiently by scientists while using animal models for experiments. We have described the physiological, behavioural, and epigenetic consequences of laboratory-induced stress among animals in this review.</p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM