Chronic Metritis in Small Ruminants: A Review
Keywords:Chronic metritis, Risk factor, Small ruminants.
The peri-partum period is a very delicate period in the life of reproductive females. During postpartum uterine involution, the uterus undergoes major changes. Infection by opportunistic bacteria is normal, almost systematic, but the natural defences usually eliminate these. When there is an imbalance between the self-defence capacity of the uterus and the pathogenicity of the bacteria, the latter can determine various uterine infections including chronic metritis. As metritis is a multifactorial disease, it is better to identify all the factors that increase the risk of the disease than to treat it. This review brings together the literature on risk factors for chronic metritis in small ruminants to explain the causal relationship between each risk factor and the disease. The prevention of chronic metritis requires the inclusion of these risk factors in the breeding strategy. Monitoring of reproduction by the veterinarian is therefore essential. In summary, some factors are specific to one form of chronic metritis and others are common to all chronic metritis, but all make the disease more severe and more frequent.
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