Abnormalities of Reproductive Organs of Sows Slaughtered at Yaounde Town, Cameroon
Keywords:Cameroon, genital diseases, prevalence, Sow, Yaounde.
The present study was conducted at the pig municipal abattoir of Yaounde (Cameroon), to determine the prevalence of pathologies of the reproductive tract in sows. The reproductive organs of 450 sows of varied ages were collected and examined. Genital tract diseases were identified from observable macroscopic lesions and abnormalities. For each sow, the breed, Body Condition Score (BCS), age, and physiological status (pregnant or not) were registered to investigate their influence on the genital tract disease prevalence. It was observed that most slaughtered sows belong to local breeds (Bakossi, Bamileke, Kousseri, Mankon Long Nose). The average age (in months) and Body Condition Score (BCS) were 15.02 ± 8.45 and 2.90 ± 0.60, respectively, while a pregnancy rate of 18% was observed. A general prevalence rate of 37.3% was observed for genital tract abnormalities with the following pathologies being the most common: ovarian cysts (19.3%), cervicitis (6%), vulvar discharges (5.6%), parovarian cysts (4%), oophoritis (4%), pyometra (3.6%), vaginitis (3.6%), vulvitis (3.3%), tumor of the oviduct (3.3%), metritis (2.9%), hydrometra (2.7%). An 18.89% prevalence rate was obtained for concomitant pathologies with a high frequency (7.1%) of the association of vulvar discharge (uterine origin) with hydrometra. Local breeds of sows with moderate BCS and about 12 months of age were the most susceptible to ovarian cysts, cervicitis, and vulvar discharges (uterine origin). This high prevalence rate of reproductive tract abnormalities is a possible reason for the high rate of infertility observed in the pig farming industry. Further studies must be carried out to elucidate the real causes of these pathologies.
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