An Investigation on the Existence and Health Hazards of Fascioliasis among Buffaloes in Sohag Governorate, Southern Egypt
Fascioliasis in Buffaloes in Egypt
Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, the common parasites of grazing animals in different regions of the globe including Egypt. This study was conducted on buffaloes for investigating the prevalence and health hazards of fascioliasis in Sohag, Egypt. An overall prevalence rate 36/151 (23.84%) was observed among all tested buffaloes. Among the aforementioned animals, fascioliasis was confirmed in living animals via detecting the operculated golden brown egg in the fecal samples in 33/117 (28.21%), whilst adult fluke was detected in liver samples from slaughtered buffaloes of another group 3/34 (8.82%). No difference was observed in the prevalence in housed buffaloes (24.47%) or in farmed ones (22.81%), (P=0.82, Odds ratio=0.5-2.38). Evaluation of health hazards in infected animals (n=33) was employed against a number of non-infected control animals (n=20). Hematological variables in infected buffaloes revealed significant decrease in RBCs count, hemoglobin content, PCV, an increase in WBCs count, neutrophils and eosinophils percents, and decrease in lymphocytes percent, indicating anemia and immunopathology. In addition, hepatic dysfunction was reported as evidenced by a significant decrease in serum albumin and a significant increase in ALT, AST, globulin, and serum total protein in diseased animals in comparison to control ones. Also, there were a significant increase in catalase and malonaldehyde and decrease in superoxide dismutase in diseased animals suggesting altering the redox potential. Postmortem examination revealed the presence of adult worm, necrosis, cirrhosis, mononuclear cell infiltration in hepatocytes and portal canal. These results emphasize the endemicity of fascioliasis among buffaloes in Egypt and the expected significant hazards on animal health and economic aspects.
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