Comparative In-vitro Efficacy of Different Acaricides for Controlling Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of Veterinary and Public Health Importance
Keywords:Resistance, Acaricides, Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Boophilus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedarii, and Ripicephalus sangueneus.
Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites parasitizing farm animals causing great economic losses worldwide, they can also transmit several zoonotic diseases to humans. Tick infestation is a big problem faced by livestock breeders especially the smallholders in Egypt. The efficacy of six commercial acaricides; Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, Lambodcyhalothrin, Esbiothrin, Chlorpyrifos, and Malathion were tested in-vitro for controlling the most prevalent tick species in Egypt namely; Boophilus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedarii, and Ripicephalus sanguineus. Ticks were collected from cattle, camels, and dogs, and tested with the targeted acaricides through the larval packet test (LPT) and the disposable pipette method using the recommended concentration and dose by the manufacturer. Resistance level against acaricides was categorized as I, II, III and IV, based on the resistance factor calculated from probit analysis of the obtained data. Cyfluthrin was the most efficacious acaricide against adult and larval stages of all tick species, however, the other five acaricides showed level II of resistance for the larval stage, and level III of resistance for adult ticks (P? 0.05). All the used acaricides used showed a better effect on the larval stages than on the adult ticks, and generally the effect was higher with longer exposure time (P? 0.05). The obtained data in this study proved the excellent efficacy of Cyfluthrin as an acaricide and pay the attention for its use by the governmental authorities and the veterinarians in their clinics to control Boophilus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedarii, and Ripicephalus sangueneus, in cattle, camels and dogs in Egypt.