Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Accessory Sex Glands and Testes of Stallion during Non-breeding Season
In the current study, the accessory sex glands of 10 stallions were visualized with trans-rectal ultrasonography during non-breeding season using a linear array B-mode veterinary ultrasound high-frequency transducer (5-7.5 MHz). Also, the echogenicity and measurements of all scrotal contents (testes, epididymis, and spermatic cords) were evaluated using transcutaneous ultrasonography. The results revealed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the measurements of ampulla, vesicular gland, prostate gland and bulbourethral gland within right and left lobes in the same stallion and between different examined stallions. Additionally, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the measurements of testes, scrotal width and tail of the epididymis. Of note, there are limited variations in echogenic characters within and between stallions as most accessory genital glands have no secretions or fluid. In conclusion, the normal reference ranges defined in this study can be used in the routine clinical evaluation of reproductive organs of stallions in the non-breeding season.