PSM Microbiology <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Microbiology (ISSN: 2518-3834) is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, open access,&nbsp; international journal that considers articles on all aspects of microbiology and allied sciences.</p> en-US (PSM Microbiology) (MANI MUGHAL) Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Anti-Candida activity of cinnamon Inhibition of virulence factors of clinical strains of Candida albicans by essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum <p>Essential oil of cinnamon (<em>Cinnamomum zeylanicum)</em> has been used in medicine and food additives. In the present work, we examined the antifungal activity of essential oil extracted from <em>C. zeylanicum</em> bark against oral opportunistic strains of <em>Candida</em> <em>albicans</em>. In addition, we verified the capability of this essential oil to inhibit fungal adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BECs), germ tube formation, and proteinase activities. Cinnamon oil presented minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values that ranged from 31.2 to 125 µg mL<sup>-1 </sup>against the isolates of the tested <em>C. albicans</em> strains. Cinnamon essential oil could inhibit the adhesion of <em>C. albicans</em> to BECs for all of the isolates tested in present study. The <em>C. albicans</em> strains showed inhibited proteinase production after treatment with cinnamon oil, based on the MIC values determined for each <em>C. albicans </em>strain. Cinnamon oil was also able to inhibit the germ tube formation of all isolates of <em>C. albicans</em>, with the percentage of inhibition ranging from 44.7 to 82.9%. Our results showed that cinnamon oil presented potent antifungal activity and the ability to inhibit virulence factors of oral pathogenic strains of <em>C. albicans</em>.</p> Priscila Cordeiro de Lima Carvalho, Nivea Pereira de Sá, Inayara Cristina Alves Lacerda, Carla Pataro, Luiz Henrique Rosa, Rodrigo Silva Alves, Juliana Pereira Lyon, Carlos Augusto Rosa, Susana Johann ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 21 Feb 2018 22:10:07 +0000 Utilisation of Pesticides by Soil Microorganisms <p>While pesticides are considered somewhat essential in modern agriculture, their indiscriminate use has been linked to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function as well as accumulation in food produce and the poisoning of groundwater. The utilisation of selected pesticides by microorganisms isolated from soil samples was observed. The pesticides tested were the organophosphorus insecticide – Diazinon and Herbicides – Primextra 500FW and Vetox 85. Detection of a zone of clearing was used to identify the Vetox 85-utilising microorganisms. Utilisers of Diazinon and Primextra 500FW were isolated by enriching the soil with mineral salt broth and providing Diazinon and Primextra as sole carbon and energy sources. This method was equally used for the <em>in vitro</em> degradation of the pesticides. Degradation was monitored using total viable cell numbers, pH and optical density. Generation times and growth rates of selected utilisers were determined. The Vetox 85-utilisers were found to be 0.32% of the total aerobic heterotrophic counts. The pesticide-degraders isolated were <em>Vibrio, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Aeromonas, Rhizopus </em>and <em>Penicillium </em>species<em>. Vibrio, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter</em> and <em>Rhizopus</em> were selected for degradation studies.<em> Vibrio</em> sp. showed the greatest pesticide utilisation capacity unexpectedly surpassing the mixed cultures, however, mixed cultures generally showed better degradative capacities than single cultures.&nbsp; <em>Vibrio</em> sp. had the highest growth rate while <em>Rhizopus</em> sp. had the lowest; <em>Rhizopus</em> sp. consequently showed the highest generation time alongside the mixed culture of <em>Vibrio</em> sp. and <em>Acinetobacter </em>sp. while <em>Vibrio</em> had the lowest generation time. The results showed that while these pesticides are relatively biodegradable <em>in vitro</em>, they are only utilisable by a limited number of indigenous soil microorganisms.</p> Anwuli U Osadebe, Raphael Maduabum, Gideon C Okpokwasili ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Seasonal Variations on Bacterial, Yeast and Mold’s Count in Drinking Water Collected from Karachi Pakistan <p>The present study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water collected from different areas of Karachi, Pakistan, during 2014 to 2015.&nbsp; A total of 320 samples were analyzed; of those 120 were bottled water and 200 samples were collected from the municipal water supply (Tap water). Most probable number (MPN) technique in MacConkey’s broth was used for the analysis of coliforms and fecal-coliforms and membrane filtration technique on Dichloran Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) was used for yeast and mold analysis. All of the bottle samples were free of coliforms and fecal-coliforms but tap drinking water samples were highly contaminated with total bacterial load, coliforms and fecal coliforms. It has been observed that bacterial as well as yeast and mold’s count was high in all of the water samples during summer. To overcome high risk of water-borne diseases, provision of improving water quality and adaptation of wash practices considered to be a part of monitoring framework system and a strict code of conduct should be implemented.</p> Shaista Urooj, Zulfiqar Ali Mirani, Shugufta Naz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Role of RNAi in Inhibition of Angiogenesis: A Review <p>Uncontrolled developments of new blood vessels take place in cancer and many other life threatening diseases. Currently, RNA interference has boosted the therapeutic prospects for inhibiting gene expression responsible for increased and uncontrolled angiogenesis in disease conditions. Small interference RNA is a fast way for analysis of gene operations by masking their function phenotype. Angiogenesis is a complex mechanism with the involvement of many different protein factors. The application of siRNA enables the rapid analysis of different pathways and recognition of new target genes. So the Initial research on the curative effects of small interfering RNA in the angiogenesis process has demonstrated that this new class of drug takes great potential for curative innovation. There are two strategies in this regard: the use of “unmodified” or the use of “complexed”, “targeted and/or protected nucleic acids”.&nbsp; The major problem for the clinical use will be to control the off-targets effects and the transient property of the sequence specific effect of silencing.&nbsp; To tackle the targeted distribution to cells which is involved in the different stages of angiogenesis process will be another problem. This article will briefly discuss in-vitro and in-vivo “angiogenesis inhibition” related perspective in complex pathological conditions.</p> Muhammad Irfan, Iqra Zafar, Iqra Rasheed, Muhammad Naeem Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Proteomics Approach Reveals Seed Germination Mechanism in Model Plants <p>Seed germination is a complex process which occurs by the successful regulation of different factors necessary to regulate germination in a coordinated and sequential way, such as phytohormones. Among three phases of seed germination, the second phase is the most important due to reactivation of metabolic pathways. DELLAs accumulation in seed resulted in the expression of gene related to F box protein. Gibberellins receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSEN-STIVE DAWRF1 (GID1) protein in rice, and F box are involved in Della degradation in the nucleus. In this mini-review, we summarize the protein related to the rice seed germination, such as protein related to energy and carbohydrate metabolism. In spite of several studies conducted to understand the genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomics data still we are unable to understand the mechanism of seed germination. To uncover the underlying mechanism of germination, current challenges and future perspectives we write this review, which might be helpful to understand the complex process of seed germination.</p> Madiha Zaynab, Ali Noman, Mahpara Fatima, Tahira Saleem, Safdar Abbas, Ammar Raza, Muhammad Naeem Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Cutoff of IgM ELISA for Diagnosis of Scrub typhus in Hilly Northern State of Himachal Pradesh <p>The aim of the study was to determine geographically relevant cutoffs for IgM ELISA in Himachal Pradesh. A total of 392 individuals including 292 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus and 100 healthy people were enrolled after taking a proper consent at Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla. An indirect ELISA that detects IgM antibodies to&nbsp;<em>Orientia tsutsugamushi</em>&nbsp;was performed in all serum samples. The serum samples from patients were subjected to IgM immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) (Fuller Laboratories, USA). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn for ELISA to generate cutoff for the test. A total of 192 patients were found to be positive for scrub typhus. A set of 100 sera samples collected from healthy volunteers from Shimla were used to establish region specific cutoff for IgM ELISA. The cut off calculated from healthy volunteer was mean OD +3 standard deviation = 0.5. The ROC curve analysis of 392 participants revealed a cutoff-OD value of 0.46 with sensitivity and specificity of 91.7% and 99.5% respectively. Hence, a cutoff-OD value of 0.46 or 0.5 can be used as the cutoff for the diagnosis of scrub typhus for Himachal Pradesh based on our findings.</p> Anshu Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000