PSM Microbiology <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Microbiology (ISSN: 2518-3834) is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, open access,&nbsp; international journal that considers articles on all aspects of microbiology and allied sciences.</p> en-US (PSM Microbiology) (MANI MUGHAL) Thu, 30 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Otitis Media in Children: Identification and Antibiotics Sensitivity of Bacterial Pathogens in Ibb City, Yemen <p>Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear. Clinically, OM presents as acute otitis media (AOM) and if it persists for more than 3 months it is called chronic otitis media (COM). So, the present study was performed to identify the aerobic bacterial pathogens and determine the antibiotics sensitivity in children with OM in Ibb city, Yemen.<strong>&nbsp; </strong>Ear swabs were collected from 100 children (Male: 53, Female: 47) that suffered to OM, clinically diagnosed by Ear Nose Throat (ENT) specialist doctors. All patients samples were inoculated into different bacteriological media to isolate the bacterial pathogens using standard bacteriologic techniques and the antibiotics sensitivity against pathogenic bacteria were done using standard disc diffusion technique. According physician and clinical diagnosis, our results showed that OM children were COM (70%) more than AOM (30%). Also, our findings indicated that the growth of aerobic gram positive bacteria was 50 (50%) more than gram negative bacteria 47 (47%) and children with non-growth of bacteria was 3 (3%). The most common type of gram positive bacteria was <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> (27%), whereas the most common type of gram negative bacteria was <em>Pseudomonas aeroginosa</em> (21%). The broad spectrum antibiotic sensitivity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria showed that the most effective and suitable antibiotics were Kanamycin and Amikacin (92%, 91%, respectively), while an effective antibiotic against <em>S. pneumoniae</em> was Vancomycin (80%) and an effective antibiotic against <em>P.aeroginosa </em>was Carbencillin (89%). In addition, our results showed that breastfeeding prevented OM in (63.3%) of infected children; whereas, passive smoking enhanced OM infection in (58%) ones.&nbsp;It can be concluded that the routine culture and sensitivity test remains the most important way for treating Otitis media and to prevent the risk of empirical therapy and antibiotic resistance to them.</p> Bashir Ahmed Al-Ofairi, Nawal Ahmed Nagi, Samah Ahmed Nagi, Tahany Mohammed Al-Tawil, Wedad Ahmed Saif ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 27 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Rice Chitinase Gene Expression in Genetically Engineered Potato Confers Resistance against Fusarium solani and Rhizictonia solani <p>The present study was planned to evaluate the transgenic potato plants containing chitinase (RCG-3) gene transformed through <em>Agro bacterium</em> for resistance against <em>Rhizoctonia Solani </em>and <em>Fusarium solani. In vitro</em>, plants were cultured for multiplication and then pathogenicity of transgenic potato plants harboring chitinase gene were carried out with fungal pathogens <em>(R. solani</em> and <em>F. solani)</em>. The fungal pathogens were isolated from infected tubers and purified by single spore technique. For multiplication of pathogens wheat straw method was used for <em>R.solani</em> and sorghum seed method was used for <em>F.solani.</em> The inoculation of fungal infection (<em>R. solani</em>) and (<em>F. solani</em>) transgenic and non-transgenic plants were performed in laboratory and controlled greenhouse conditions (Containment). Results showed that transgenic potato plants containing chitinase (RCG-3) gene transformed through <em>Agrobacterium </em>showed resistance against <em>R. Solani </em>and <em>F. solani </em>compared to non-transgenic plants. It was concluded that rice chitinase gene expression in potato confers enhanced resistance against two major fungal diseases of potato in Pakistan.</p> Madiha Zaynab, Sonia Kanwal, Iqbal Hussain, Muhammad Qasim, Ali Noman, Umer Iqbal, Ghulam Muhammad Ali, Khalida Bahadar, Aatka Jamil, Kalsoom Sughra, Nazia Rehman, Mahmooda Buriro, Safdar Abbas, Mohsin Ali, Anwaar Hayder Alvi, Muhammad Anwar, Muhammad Ifnan Khan, Muhammad Tayyab ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Antagonism in Rhizobacteria: Application for Biocontrol of Soil-borne Plant Pathogens <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>EDITORIAL</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Rhizobacteria play an important role in plant defense and could be promising sources of biocontrol agents. Antagonism between soil microorganisms is a common phenomenon. A number of investigators’ have documented antagonism of fungi, actinomycetes and true bacteria to root rot pathogens (Ortiz-Castro&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2009). Soil bacteria, particularly rhizospheric ones with antagonistic properties, reveal biological control effectiveness to some plant diseases, and are the most likely for development of biological control agents (BCAs) (Essghaier&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2009).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The rhizosphere of plant is a zone of intense microbial activity, and some bacteria from this zone, termed rhizobacteria, exhibit active root colonization in the presence of the existing native microfolora. Various species of rhizospheric bacteria like<em>&nbsp;Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em>Serratia</em>&nbsp;and endophytic bacteria like&nbsp;<em>Pseudomonas</em>,&nbsp;<em>Bacillus</em>,&nbsp;<em>Xanthomonas</em>&nbsp;and<em>&nbsp;Erwinia</em>&nbsp;have been reported to be associated with soil crops. Bacteria are estimated to occupy between 7% and 15% of the total root surface area (Gray and Smith, 2005). Rhizo-bacteria that exert beneficial effects on plant development are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizo-bacteria (PGPR) (Kloepper and Schroth, 1978) because their application is often associated with stimulation of plant growth. It was found that bacteria that produced more compounds associated to phytopathogen biocontrol and/or plant growth had a higher efficacy for biocontrol (Mota&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2017).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Biological control, a bioeffector method with other living organisms to control pests (insects, mites, weeds, and plant diseases) (Flint&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;1998), has been considered as effective approaches.&nbsp;The use of biological control measure is one of the best strategies available to combat the pests and diseases in an ecofriendly manner and much experimental work is being carried out all over world to assess its commercial acceptability and applicability.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Interest in biological control of plant pathogens has increased considerably over the past years, partly as a response to public concern about the use of hazardous chemical pesticides (Raaijmahers&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2002). Most approaches for biocontrol of plant diseases have used single biocontrol agents as antagonists to a single pathogen (Siddiqui&nbsp;<em>et al</em>., 2000). It is likely that most cases of naturally occurring biological control result from mixtures of antagonists for example, mixture of antagonists are considered to account for protection in disease- suppressive soils (Lemanceau and Alabouvette, 1991).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Biological control offers an important alternative to synthetic chemicals. The use of bacteria like&nbsp;<em>Pseudomonas sp</em>.,&nbsp;<em>Bacillus sp</em>., and various other bacteria has been investigated because of their properties to produce antifungal metabolites and protect plants from fungal infection (Gupta and Kaushal, 2017).&nbsp;<em>Bacillus sp</em>. is considered safe biological agent and their potential as biocontrol agent is considered to be high (Kim&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2004; Etesami and Alikhani, 2017). Bacteria are also used for biocontrol of other bacterial or fungal pathogen, viruses and nematodes (Shalaby and Sedik, 2008; Alsohiby&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2016; Murphy ET AL., 2000; Saman, 2009). The mechanisms of biocontrol adopted by rhizobacteria include the production of antibiotics, bacteriocins, siderophores, hydrolytic enzymes and other metabolites, phytoalexins production, interference in quorum sensing, reduction in ethylene production, and induction of systemic resistance.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A comparative study was conducted and&nbsp;<em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em>&nbsp;isolates were identified from different localities of city Gujranwala which could be used as biocontrol agents (Yunus&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2016a). Similarly from other investigations&nbsp;<em>B. subtilis</em>&nbsp;isolates were found to produce protease enzyme (Yunus&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2017a) and Esterase enzyme (Yunus&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2017b). A total of 56 isolates, belonging to four different strains of antibiotic producing bacteria;&nbsp;<em>B. subtilis</em>&nbsp;(30),&nbsp;<em>B. licheniformis&nbsp;</em>(9),&nbsp;<em>Streptomyces</em>&nbsp;(12) and&nbsp;<em>Actinomycetes&nbsp;</em>(5) were found from soil samples. These results suggest that soil isolates, having antibiotic producing capability can be used commercially after proper standardization (Yunus&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2016b).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">To improve efficacy of biological control, however, understanding of the mechanisms of action, nutrition, and ecology of biocontrol agents is needed. Such knowledge will lead to substantial progress in selection of superior strains, mass production, and appropriate formation of biocontrol organisms (Fravel, 1988). In vivo biocontrol agent selection is not a simple task owing to the diversity of agents and interactions with the host plant. Thus, it is required to develop efficient selection approaches to diminish costs and increase the possibility of choosing organisms that can be produced in a large scale at low cost and that retain their viability and efficiency for long periods.</p> Muhammad Naeem Iqbal, Asfa Ashraf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in the Northern areas (District Malakand) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p>The current study was designed to investigate the occurrence of malarial infections in the Northern areas (District Malakand) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Malarial parasites were detected in the blood samples of suspected patients of the infection. Out of 210 suspected cases of malaria, 47 (22.38%) were found to be positive for the malarial parasite in blood smear slides. Out of positive cases, 28 (59.57%) were identified as <em>Plasmodium vivax </em>infection and 19 (40.42%) cases with <em>P. falciparum</em>. No case was found having both the malarial parasites. This research work evidenced that <em>P. falciparum</em> and <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> are steadily becoming more dangerous and deadly in rural areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in general, and particularly in District Malakand. It is therefore highly necessary to take immediate and effective measures to minimize death toll in these areas.</p> Muhammad Imran, Irshad Ahmad, Muhammad Kalim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Assessment of Salmonella spp. in Labeo rohita Marketed in Lahore, Pakistan <p>Aquatic food especially fish is significantly accomplishing the need of protein of the major part of the world. Fish is very prone to parasites including <em>Salmonella</em>. <em>Salmonella</em> is the second largest group of pathogens, causing food borne diseases. During the course of study, a total of 25 <em>Labeo rohita</em> samples were collected randomly from five markets of Lahore. These samples were transported to the Microbiology section of Fish Quality Control Labs, Manawan, Lahore, under hygienic conditions to preserve the original state. Fish was found healthy and normal when observed for appearance, texture, odor, and abnormality. The samples were tested for <em>Salmonella </em>spp. using biochemical procedures and the results were negative for <em>Salmonella </em>spp. in all fish samples. All the samples indicated the healthy condition for consumption of fish as food.</p> Shelly Saima Yaqub, Muhammad Arfan Hadyait, Sana Salim, Ehsan Mahmood Bhatti, Muhammad Zafar Ullah, Imtiaz Begum ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 29 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +0000