PSM Microbiology <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Microbiology (ISSN: 2518-3834) is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, open access,&nbsp; international journal that considers articles on all aspects of microbiology and allied sciences.</p> PSM Publishers en-US PSM Microbiology 2518-3834 Otitis Media in Children: Identification and Antibiotics Sensitivity of Bacterial Pathogens in Ibb City, Yemen <p>Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear. Clinically, OM presents as acute otitis media (AOM) and if it persists for more than 3 months it is called chronic otitis media (COM). So, the present study was performed to identify the aerobic bacterial pathogens and determine the antibiotics sensitivity in children with OM in Ibb city, Yemen.<strong>&nbsp; </strong>Ear swabs were collected from 100 children (Male: 53, Female: 47) that suffered to OM, clinically diagnosed by Ear Nose Throat (ENT) specialist doctors. All patients samples were inoculated into different bacteriological media to isolate the bacterial pathogens using standard bacteriologic techniques and the antibiotics sensitivity against pathogenic bacteria were done using standard disc diffusion technique. According physician and clinical diagnosis, our results showed that OM children were COM (70%) more than AOM (30%). Also, our findings indicated that the growth of aerobic gram positive bacteria was 50 (50%) more than gram negative bacteria 47 (47%) and children with non-growth of bacteria was 3 (3%). The most common type of gram positive bacteria was <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> (27%), whereas the most common type of gram negative bacteria was <em>Pseudomonas aeroginosa</em> (21%). The broad spectrum antibiotic sensitivity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria showed that the most effective and suitable antibiotics were Kanamycin and Amikacin (92%, 91%, respectively), while an effective antibiotic against <em>S. pneumoniae</em> was Vancomycin (80%) and an effective antibiotic against <em>P.aeroginosa </em>was Carbencillin (89%). In addition, our results showed that breastfeeding prevented OM in (63.3%) of infected children; whereas, passive smoking enhanced OM infection in (58%) ones.&nbsp;It can be concluded that the routine culture and sensitivity test remains the most important way for treating Otitis media and to prevent the risk of empirical therapy and antibiotic resistance to them.</p> Bashir Ahmed Al-Ofairi Nawal Ahmed Nagi Samah Ahmed Nagi Tahany Mohammed Al-Tawil Wedad Ahmed Saif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-27 2017-10-27 2 3 51 58 Identification of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in the Northern areas (District Malakand) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p>The current study was designed to investigate the occurrence of malarial infections in the Northern areas (District Malakand) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Malarial parasites were detected in the blood samples of suspected patients of the infection. Out of 210 suspected cases of malaria, 47 (22.38%) were found to be positive for the malarial parasite in blood smear slides. Out of positive cases, 28 (59.57%) were identified as <em>Plasmodium vivax </em>infection and 19 (40.42%) cases with <em>P. falciparum</em>. No case was found having both the malarial parasites. This research work evidenced that <em>P. falciparum</em> and <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> are steadily becoming more dangerous and deadly in rural areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in general, and particularly in District Malakand. It is therefore highly necessary to take immediate and effective measures to minimize death toll in these areas.</p> Muhammad Imran Irshad Ahmad Muhammad Kalim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-02 2017-11-02 2 3 59 62