International Journal of Alternative Fuels and Energy <p style="text-align: justify;">International Journal of Alternative Fuels and Energy (IJAFE; ISSN: 2523-9171)&nbsp; is a peer-reviewed, open access,&nbsp; international journal that considers articles on all aspects of alternative energy sources and allied sciences.</p> en-US (International Journal of Alternative Fuels and Energy) (MANI MUGHAL) Mon, 30 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Finitе Еlеmеnt Аnаlysis оf Sеераgе аnd Еxit Grаdiеnt undеrnеаth Jinnаh Bаrrаgе Wеir Fоundаtiоn by Using Gео-Slоре (Sеер/W) Sоftwаrе <p style="text-align: justify;">In рrеsеnt rеsеаrсh wоrk а slаvе рrоgrаm (SЕЕР/W) оf а Gео-Slоре Sоftwаrе, wаs usеd tо соmрutе thе sеераgе flux аnd еxit grаdiеnt undеr Jinnаh bаrrаgе wеir fоundаtiоn. 2-D FЕ mоdel wаs gеnеrаtеd by using fоur tyрes оf еlеmеnts, i.е. triаngulаr, squаrе, reсtangular аnd trареzоidаl. Wаtеr sеераgе is оnе оf thе mаjоr issuеs whiсh is tо bе еnсоuntеrеd еmрhаtiсаlly аs mаin struсturе оf thе wеir vеry muсh dереndеnt оf оn sеераgе duе tо оbviоus rеаsоns. Bаsеd оn thе реrtinеnt teсhniсal dаtа аt its оriginаl shаре аnd sizе аt thе timе оf соnstruсtiоn thе sеераgе аnd еxit grаdiеnt wаs саrriеd оut numеriсаlly аnd furthеr thе еxit grаdiеnt wаs соmраrеd with Khоslа’s Mеthоd. Thе rеsults shоwеd thаt аt lоwеst wаtеr lеvеl аt thе uрstrеаm оf thе bаrrаgе; minimum sеераgе (5.0995 x 10<sup>-6</sup> m<sup>3</sup>/sес/m) аnd аt highеst wаtеr lеvеl mаximum sеераgе (6.7994 x 10<sup>-6</sup> (m<sup>3</sup>/sес/m) оссurs rеsресtivеly. Thе еxit grаdiеnt fоr аll thе sсеnаriоs wаs fоund within thе реrmissiblе limits оf (0.25 tо 0.20) fоr shinglе mаtеriаl; whiсh соnfоrms thе sаfеty сritеriа оf thе wеir. Thе thеоrеtiсаl аnd simulаtеd еxit grаdiеnt vаluеs wаs соmраrеd tо соuntеr сhесk thе еffiсiеnсy оf numеriсаl mоdеl whiсh shоwеd thаt аmоngst аll thе dаtа sеts thе RMSЕ, MЕ, аnd АMRЕ wаs fоund (0.007354), (0.006180), аnd 0.98% rеsресtivеly. Thе реrfоrmаnсе еffiсiеnсy оf thе mоdеl wаs fоundеd аs 99.995%. Thе FЕ mоdеl wаs аlsо vеrifiеd by соmраring thе thеоrеtiсаl аnd simulаtеd vаluеs оf еxit grаdiеnt whiсh shоwеd thаt thе slоре linе wаs оbsеrvеd tо bе аррrоximаtеly аt 45 dеgrее; whiсh is аn еvidеnсе thаt thеrе wаs nо signifiсаnt diffеrеnсе bеtwееn thеоrеtiсаl аnd simulаtеd еxit grаdiеnt vаluеs. Thus, it is соnсludеd thаt thеоrеtiсаl vаluеs оf еxit grаdiеnt аrе nоt muсh diffеrеnt thаn thе simulаtеd оnеs.</p> Imrаn Arshad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Environmental Pollution: Heavy Metals Removal from Water Sources <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>EDITORIAL</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Environmental pollution arising from heavy metals and minerals in the wastewater is the most serious problem. Due to extensive anthropogenic activities such as industrial operations particularly mining, agricultural processes and disposal of industrial waste materials; their concentration has increased to dangerous levels. Heavy metals in industrial effluent include nickel, chromium, lead, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, selenium and uranium. A wide variety of toxic inorganic and organic chemicals are discharged into the environment as industrial wastes, causing serious water, air, and soil pollution. Water pollution caused by toxic heavy metal ions has become a serious environmental problem. Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth crust and present in the environment as a result of weathering and erosion of parent rocks. In addition to natural sources, they are introduced in the ecosystems through wastewaters originating from anthropogenic sources such as chemical manufacturing, metal finishing, welding, alloys manufacturing, painting, mining, extractive metallurgy, plating, tannery battery industry and from agriculture using fertilizers and pesticides (<a href="#_ENREF_1">Bradl, 2005</a>). These toxic metal ions, even at low concentrations, have deteriorated water resources and drinking water and easily accumulated in the human body through the food chain, causing a variety of diseases and disorders. So, it is necessary to remove these metal ions from industrial effluents for their subsequent safe disposal. The removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters has been a subject of extensive industrial research. Different methods, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, chemical and electrochemical techniques, ion-exchange methods ultra filtration and reverse osmosis, flotation and coagulation have been established for the removal of toxic metal ions from industrial effluents and wastewaters. However, most of these processes are unacceptable, owing to the disposal of sludge, their high cost, low efficiency and inapplicability to a wide range of pollutants (<a href="#_ENREF_3">Emamjomeh and Sivakumar, 2009</a>). So, various readily available natural materials were reviewed as adsorbents of heavy metals from industrial wastewater.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Adsorption is one of the alternatives for such cases and is an effective purification and separation technique used in industry especially in water and wastewater treatments. Cost is an important parameter for comparing the adsorbent materials. Therefore, there is increasing research interest in using alternative low-cost adsorbents. Ion exchange is probably one of the major adsorption mechanisms for binding divalent metal ions to the walnut sawdust. Novel adsorbents and membrane filtration are the most frequently studied and widely applied for the treatment of metal-contaminated wastewater. However, in the near future, the most promising methods to treat such complex systems will be the photo catalytic ones which consume cheap photons from the UV-near visible region. They induce both degradation of organic pollutants and recovery of metals in one-pot systems. Adsorption on solid-solution interface is an important means for controlling the extent of pollution due to heavy metal ions. The use of activated carbon and ion exchange resins is not suitable for developing countries due to their high capital and operational costs. This has encouraged research into discovery of materials that are both efficient and cheap. Interest has recently arisen in the investigation of some unconventional methods and low cost materials for scavenging heavy metal ions from industrial waste waters from industry.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Materials such as silica gel and bentonite are of great interest as their cost is less and are also available abundantly (<a href="#_ENREF_7">Rengaraj and Moon, 2002</a>). However, there are many cases in which these do not adsorb metals efficiently; therefore it becomes necessary to modify these materials by using suitable method. Silica gel cross linked with bentonite composite may effectively remove trace elements such as Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd, Pb, and Mn from contaminated water (<a href="#_ENREF_4">Jal <em>et al.,</em> 2004</a>).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Composites can be defined as natural or synthesized materials which are made from two or more materials having significantly different physical and chemical properties.&nbsp; Such materials remain well defined, separate and distinct at the microscopic or macroscopic scale within the material and can also be regenerated after their use through the process of desorption. Moreover, very high reactivity of composite materials and their excellent selectivity towards specific pollutant makes them a promising and attractive adsorbent for the removal of various kinds of pollutants(<a href="#_ENREF_5">Jiuhui, 2008</a>).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In recent years, polymer nanocomposites have attracted the attention of scientists and technologists in water purification due to improved processability, surface area, stability, tunable properties, and cost effectiveness (<a href="#_ENREF_6">Pandey <em>et al.,</em> 2017</a>). The purpose to synthesize composites is to combine the desired properties of the materials. In nano composite, the nano particles (such as clay, metal, carbon nano tubes, etc.) play the role of filler in the matrix. Combined properties are shown by Polymer–clay composites; which represent an improvement in thermal, mechanical and porosity properties compared with the homogenous characteristics of the bare individual clay and polymer components (<a href="#_ENREF_2">Bulut and Tez, 2007</a>).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In Pakistan, the provision of safe water is lacking in most areas of the country. Water pollution is damaging the ecosystems and the aquatic life. The need of the hour is to deploy effective water treatment strategies for the removal of heavy metals from water sources.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>CONFLICT OF INTEREST</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The authors declare that no competing interests exist.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Citation: </strong>Iqbal, M.N, Ashraf, A., 2018. Environmental Pollution: Heavy Metals Removal from Water Sources. Int. J. Altern. Fuels. Energy., 2(1): 14-15.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>REFERENCES</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Bradl, H.B., 2005. Heavy Metals in the Environment: Origin, Interaction and Remediation; . Elsevier:, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, .</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Bulut, Y., Tez, Z., 2007. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by sawdust adsorption. Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), 19(2): 160-166.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Emamjomeh, M.M., Sivakumar, M., 2009. Review of pollutants removed by electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation/flotation processes. J. Environ. Manage., 90(5): 1663-1679.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Jal, P.K., Patel, S., Mishra, B.K., 2004. Chemical modification of silica surface by immobilization of functional groups for extractive concentration of metal ions. Talanta, 62(5): 1005-1028.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Jiuhui, Q., 2008. Research progress of novel adsorption processes in water purification: a review. Journal of environmental sciences, 20(1): 1-13.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Pandey, N., Shukla, S., Singh, N., 2017. Water purification by polymer nanocomposites: an overview. Nanocomposites, 3(2): 47-66.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Rengaraj, S., Moon, S.-H., 2002. Kinetics of adsorption of Co (II) removal from water and wastewater by ion exchange resins. Water Res., 36(7): 1783-1793.</p> Muhammad Naeem Iqbal, Asfa Ashraf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000