PSM Biological Research https://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> en-US biolres@psmpublishers.org (PSM Biological Research) info@psmpublishers.org (MANI MUGHAL) Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Hormonal Inconsistency: A Sign of the Onset of Acnegenesis https://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/423 <p>Hormonal release throughout the body is dependent on the various signaling pathways, which are responsible for consistent activities until any fluctuations occur in them. The abnormal activities of hormones are the precursor to many disorders. Hormonal imbalance and abnormal production of sebaceous glands during the differentiation and maturation of pilosebaceous units render to an infectious and inflammatory skin disorder i.e. acne. Five major factors i.e. sebum production, dead skin cells, propionibacterium colonies, sebaceous glands, and hormonal imbalance are correlated with each other in acnegenesis. Acne is directly linked with the onset of puberty. However, it is most common in females as compared to males. In females, hormones overstimulate during the pregnancy and menstrual cycle. The development starts from inflammatory to non-inflammatory acne i.e. papules, nodules, pustules, and more severe cysts and acne scarring may result. Steroid sex hormones i.e. androgen, estrogen, and progesterone are mostly responsible for the overproduction of sebum in acne formation. Several growth hormones like insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 and stress hormones i.e. cortisol, glucocorticoids are involved in the pathogenesis of acne. This review is conducted to address the common issues and factors involved in acnegenesis, for a better understanding of hormonal activities involved.</p> Ayesha Ilyas, Samra Kanwal, Usama Ahmed Khalid Copyright (c) 2020 PSM Biological Research http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/423 Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000