PSM Biological Research <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> en-US (PSM Biological Research) (MANI MUGHAL) Sun, 31 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Breast Cancer Awareness: Current Trends and Future Approaches to Breast Cancer Management <p>No abstract is available.</p> IQBAL Copyright (c) 2021 PSM Sun, 31 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Review of Pakistan’s Perspective on COVID-19 Pandemic IQBAL, Ali Muhammad, Mirza Imran Shahzad Copyright (c) 2021 PSM Sun, 31 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Oil Industry Pollution on Health and Livelihood: Case of Harib, Marib Governorate, Yemen <p>The governorate of Marib in general and the directorate of Harib, in particular, suffer from oil pollution in its various forms, which has affected the air, water, and soil. Also, it has caused many deadly diseases such as cancers and kidney failure, as well as affected the properties of groundwater and agricultural lands. The oil companies in these places have not taken any steps of mitigation harming the environment and humans or stop disposing of their hazardous waste directly into the soil and releasing toxic gases into the air. Added to this, the weak role of the government and the absence of control and accountability of these companies. This indicates that the citizens did not receive any compensation or attention for the damage that they have suffered. The current research is based on the fieldwork which was taken place in the earlier period of 2015 through the sampling of soil from contaminated sites in different areas around the oil fields in the province. In addition to the analyses of their components, a field survey was conducted in the year 2020 to check the spread of various diseases and their classification; as well as the damage of agricultural land in Harib area, in Marib Governorate, as a model and to analyze the results of ongoing field surveys. The results showed the prevalence of 17 types of cancers in 64% of the samples, as well as kidney failure and respiratory diseases, which calls for urgent action and obligating companies to build hospitals and provide treatments for the victims, also remove all hazardous waste in the area and apply environmental measures in all operations within the oil fields.</p> Abdulqader Al-Kharraz, Fahd Al-Dhelie, Ahmed Yahya Saleh Copyright (c) 2021 PSM Sun, 31 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Environmental and Human Health Implication of Oil Industry Pollution <p>Oil pollution is not only a concern for the environment but also for human health. Contamination of air, water, and soil by wastes from the oil industry, whether as a consequence of acute or chronic events, constitutes an additional source of stress for organisms. Oil exploration and exploitation produces environmental hazards that are “slow poisons,” in that they often take months and years to cause disease and death. The widespread presence of constituents of crude oil in the bio-physical environment of the impacted communities is known to be capable of exerting some acute and long-term adverse health effects. In this issue, Al-Kharraz et al. report the incidence of various types of cancers, as well as kidney failure and respiratory diseases in human population affected by oil industry pollution. Material relief and immediate and long-term medical care are recommended to address the potential health effects of exposure to oil industry pollution.</p> Asfa Ashraf, IQBAL Copyright (c) 2021 PSM Sun, 31 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges and Opportunities of Solid Waste Management System in Developing Countries: A Mini-Review <p>Solid waste management (SWM) is a global issue in terms of environmental contamination, health impacts, and economic sustainability. Effective solid waste management is critical for achieving sustainable development goals. Increased populations coupled with rapid urban buildup put enormous stress on municipalities, especially in developing countries. Improper management of solid waste is represented by a low collection rate of waste, waste accumulation on roadsides and around containers, and the illegal dumping or burning of waste in spaces. This situation causes severe environmental effects, risks to public health. This article reviews the challenges and opportunities of solid waste management system in developing countries, focusing on environmental contamination and health impacts. The introduction of enforcement and incentive programs along with education campaigns can encourage the public to view waste more as a resource, with recycling being the preferred option, rather than disposal.</p> Iqra Iqbal, Ghazal Ishtiaq, Ziaur Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 PSM Sun, 31 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000