PSM Biological Research <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> PSM Publishers en-US PSM Biological Research 2517-9586 Incidence of HBV and HCV in Young Orphan Students of Swat <p>Hepatitis remains major public health problem in the country, also one of the leading causes of death. The present work was conducted to define the incidence of HBV and HCV infections and related risk factors among young orphan students from different areas of District Swat. A total of 175 samples within the age group of 5-17 years were studied of which 109 were males and 66 females. Initially, samples were examined by immunochromatographic assay (ICT) and were further analyzed by PCR method. 61(34.85%) subjects were found positive for HCV by ICT strip and 31 of these were confirmed by PCR, having 20 male and 11 female. The prevalence rate was recorded 17.71 % for HCV in selected areas. Similarly, for HBV a total of 7 (4%) patients were recorded positive by ICT and 3 (2.75 %) male subject were confirmed by PCR. No female subject was found HBV positive. Total HBV prevalence rate was 1.71 %. Disease frequency revealed increasing configuration and massive health education campaign is needed in related areas of Swat regarding hepatitis B and C viral infections. Vaccination at all healthcare channels should be planned to limit its spread.</p> Muhammad Kalim Habib Ahmad Abdul Rauf Shahid Nadeem Murad Ali Rahat Shafiq ud Din ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 2 3 128 132 Performance of Different Genotypes of Gossypium hirsutum under Various Sowing Conditions on Yield Contributing Parameters <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of different cotton genotypes at Chishtian District, Bahawalnagar region. Four cotton genotypes (IUB-2013, FH-142, FH-LALAZAR and MNH-886) were sown under two different sowing times i.e., normal sowing S1 (20<sup>th</sup> April) and late sowing S2 (20<sup>th</sup> May 2016). The experiment design was split plot design with three replications in which genotypes were kept in main plot and sowing dates were in sub plot. Different agronomic practices were applied timely to insure healthy crop stand.&nbsp; Total yield and yield contributing parameters like number of bolls plant-<sup>1</sup>, boll weight (g), and seed cotton yield (kg/ha) were recorded. Genotype FH-142 showed best result for the trait number of bolls per plant (81.67) followed by genotype FH- Lalazar (80) under normal sowing condition. For number of bolls per plant under late sowing condition, FH-Lalazar depicted highest value (59.33) followed by FH-142 (55.67). For bolls per plant, FH-Lalazar depicted highest value (23.33 g) followed by FH-142 (22.67 g) and IUB-2013 (18.67 g) under normal sowing conditions. While under late sowing condition, FH-Lalazar dominated among all genotypes and displayed high value of boll weight (19.67 g). Genotype FH- LALAZAR showed highest seed cotton (5496 kg/ha) followed by FH-142 (5424.3 kg/ha) under normal sowing (S1). However, in case of late sowing (S2), FH-LALAZAR exhibited greater value of seed cotton yield followed by FH-142. The data regarding varying genetic diversity of the genotypes can be helpful to take measures for improving cotton yield per hectare.</p> Muhammad Raheel Madiha Zaynab Muhammad Anwar Ansar Hussain Sonia Kanwal Khalida Bahuder Anwaar Alvi Muhammad Furqan Ashraf Zafar Iqbal Muhammad Nadeem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-24 2017-09-24 2 3 133 136 Effеct of Watеr Strеss on the Growth and Yield of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) undеr Grееnhousе Conditions <p>An еxpеrimеnt was conductеd to chеck thе еffеct of diffеrеnt lеvеls of irrigation trеatmеnts on thе growth and yiеld of swееt pеppеr on a sandy soil, undеr grееnhousе conditions by using drip irrigation systеm having flow ratе of drippеrs 2 litеrs pеr hour (LPS). The field study was carried out on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) having seven different rates of irrigation treatments with four replications. The irrigation water applied in such a way that (T<sub>1</sub>&nbsp;= one time, T<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;= two times, T<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;= three times, T<sub>4</sub>&nbsp;= four times, T<sub>5</sub>&nbsp;= five times, T<sub>6</sub>&nbsp;= six times, and T<sub>7</sub>&nbsp;= seven times) application per day. Thе rеsults rеvеalеd that diffеrеnt lеvеls of irrigation watеr application brought a positivе еffеct in swееt pеppеr production. Amongst all thе trеatmеnts, T<sub>5</sub>&nbsp;was obsеrvеd to bе morе suitablе and еconomical as it took lеast days to dеvеlop flowеrs (24.41 days), givе morе numbеr of fruits pеr plant (18.51 fruits), highеst fruit lеngth (8.20 cm), highеst fruit diamеtеr (7.09 cm), highеst fruit wеight (103.80 g), and highеst fruit yiеld (7.62 tons donum<sup>-1</sup>) rеspеctivеly. Howеvеr, trеatmеnt T<sub>1</sub>showеd inadеquatе rеsults rеgarding all thе paramеtеrs. Rеsults suggеsts that thе fivе timеs application of watеr of thrее minutеs long duration pеr day to thе swееt pеppеr plants, with 15 minutеs gap in bеtwееn еach watеr application wеrе found suitablе for bеst possiblе growth and yiеld of swееt pеppеr undеr grееnhousе conditions using drip irrigation systеm.</p> Imran Arshad Muhammad Irfan Zahееr Ahmеd Khan Barkat Ali Nindwani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-24 2017-09-24 2 3 137 141 Osteoarthritis Treatment: An In-depth Review of Conventional and Nonconventional Interventions for Symptomatic Relief and Novel Disease Modifying Modalities <p>Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degradation of joint cartilage which produces severe pain and swelling leading to immobility of the joint. OA can affect people of all age, gender and geographical locations, and the cost associated with long term medication, hospitalization and the loss of daily work hours stigmatizes the patient’s life. Conventionally, the treatment of OA is done with analgesic to relieve pain, but due to notorious side effects profile of NSAIDs and corticosteroids, dependence phenomenon with opioids and continuous underlying degradation of joint, the analgesics cannot be relied upon as sole therapeutic agent. Physical therapies, exercise, modification of lifestyle and use of supportive devices have shown effectiveness in prevention and treatment of mild OA. With the application of multidisciplinary approaches in medical research, many pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have evolved with optimistic claims of relieving joint pain and swelling. More recently, disease modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) have shown promising results in preventing cartilage degradation and induction of cartilage regeneration in experimental models as well as initial phases of clinical trials. The diversity of individual needs and complex comorbidities calls for patient oriented treatment plan, a goal which can be achieved effectively by multidisciplinary health care team. This review will provide an in-depth review of all clinically accepted conventional and nonconventional interventions for symptomatic relief of pain as well as novel disease modifying pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities.</p> Mubashar Rehman Asadullah Madni Saima Khalil Muhammad Umair Tauseef Nasir Omer Saeed Muhammad Naeem Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-08-06 2017-08-06 2 3 97 110 Bioinformatics Tools in Agriculture: An Update <p>Bioinformatics plays an important role in agriculture science. As the data amount grows exponentially, there is a parallel growth in tools and methods demand in visualization, integration, analysis, prediction and management of data. At the same time, many researchers in the field of plant sciences are unfamiliar with available methods, databases, and tools of bioinformatics which could lead to missed information opportunities or misinterpretation. Some key concepts of software packages, methods, and databases used in bioinformatics are described in this review. In this review, we have discussed some problems related to biological databases and biological sequence analyses. Gene findings, genome annotation, type of biological database, how to data represent and store was deliberated. Future perspective of bioinformatics tools was also discussed in this review.</p> Madiha Zaynab Sonia Kanwal Safdar Abbas Fiza Fida Waqar Islam Muhammad Qasim Nazia Rehman Faiza Fida Muhammad Furqan Muhammad Rizwan Muhammad Anwar Ansar Hussain Muhammad Tayab ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-08-06 2017-08-06 2 3 111 116 Late Blight of Potato (Phytophthora infestans) II: Employing Integrated Approaches in Late Blight Disease Management <p>Late blight of potato is a yield reducing and one of the most costly diseases of potato and other plants belonging to family Solanaceae. Induced by <em>Phytophthora infestans</em>, the disease prevails throughout the world where potato and other Solanaceous crops are cultivated. <em>P. infestans </em>has a broad host range; however, the most severe effects of late blight are more evident on its principal hosts – potato and tomato. Cool and humid environmental conditions ideally propagate the pathogen which may result in severe disease outbreaks with substantial crop losses. Currently, extensive use of chemical fungicides is the only effective measure to control late blight; however, their use offers public, environmental and economic challenges. Thus, it is necessary to address these challenges by employing integrated disease control strategies. This review highlights all those combined techniques which may be effective in controlling late blight of potato while sustaining environment, public health and economic costs incurred by the disease.</p> Abdul Majeed Zahir Muhammad Habib Ahmad Saiful Islam Zabeeh Ullah Rafi Ullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-08-06 2017-08-06 2 3 117 123 Allelopathic Effects of Some Common Weeds Prevailing in Wheat Fields on Growth Characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) <p>In this study, aqueous extracts of aerial parts of four common weeds (<em>Avena fatua, Phalaris minor</em>, <em>Melilotus alba</em> and <em>Chenopodium album</em>) found in cultivated fields of district Peshawar were tested for their allelopathic effects on wheat in seed bioassay. Extracts of each weed were applied at concentration 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/100 ml. Seeds germination and growth attributes of wheat such as radicle and plumule heights were significantly retarded under respective allelopathic aqueous extracts of all the tested weeds except <em>M. alba </em>which showed slight phyto-inhibition at the highest dose (12 g/100 ml) only; however, significant variation were observed among the weeds for their phyto-toxic behavior. In general, deleterious effects on germination and growth were found to be linearly correlated with concentration of extracts. Moreover, <em>C. album </em>was found more phyto-toxic followed by <em>A. fatua </em>and <em>P. minor </em>respectively. Least phytotoxicity was shown by the aqueous extracts of <em>M. alba </em>which had negative effects only at higher concentration.</p> Saira Siyar Zubeda Chaudhry Fida Hussain Zahid Hussain Abdul Majeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-08-10 2017-08-10 2 3 124 127