PSM Biological Research 2019-12-18T05:50:11+00:00 PSM Biological Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> Effect of Examination Stress on Brain Oscillations During Memory Tasks in Human Females During the Luteal Phase 2019-11-11T14:01:28+00:00 Shimaa Mohammad Yousof Amani El-Baz Dalia Ibrahim Ahmed Osama Yasser El-wazir <p>Stress is known to increase the activity of the hypothalamic adrenal axis. Some researchers were unable to find an effect of stress on memory retrieval in females. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) provides an objective assessment of the electrical activity of the brain via many techniques such as power spectral analysis and coherence. The current study was conducted to assess the effect of examination stress on qEEG oscillations during delayed memory retrieval in females during the luteal phase. A&nbsp; Prospective longitudinal study was applied on 11 healthy females. qEEG analysis was done using the relative power (RP) and the peak power frequency (PPF) during memory tasks. Serum cortisol was analyzed as a measure of stress. Serum estrogen and progesterone were assessed to validate the phase of the menstrual cycle. All hormonal analyses were done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The results revealed insignificant effects on the quantitative analysis of EEG oscillations during the luteal phase regarding the mean relative power in all frequency bands (delta "δ"; P- value: 0.38 and 0.41, theta "Ɵ"; P- value: 0.26 and 0.87, alpha "α"; P- value: 0.69 and 0.85 and beta "β"; P- value: 0.91 and 0.74 during the word and photo recognition tasks; respectively). Regarding the peak power frequency EEG analysis; there were no significant differences in (δ, Ɵ, α and β) EEG bands during the word and photo- recognition tasks over the central (C3 and C4) and occipital (O1 and O2) sites in stress compared to non-stress periods; P- values were: C3: 0.37 and 0.55, C4: 0.33 and 0.11, and were: O1: 0.13 and 0.13 and O2: 0.9 and 0.29 during the word and photo recognition memory tasks; respectively. It is concluded that gonadal steroids have no effect on brain oscillation during both resting and stress conditions.</p> 2019-10-31T09:00:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 PSM The Promotion of Pulses Cultivation and Awareness for its Nutritive Value among the Farmers of District Faisalabad 2019-12-18T05:50:11+00:00 Muhammad Rizwan Samsam Haider Fareeha Ahmed Hafiz Ali Raza <p>This study intends to promote pulses cultivation and to aware the farmers of District Faisalabad regarding the nutritive value of pulses. For this purpose, 116 farmers were selected for data collection through simple random sampling from 5 Tehsils of Faisalabad namely Jaranwala, Tandlianwala, Chak Jhumra, Samundri and Faisalabad itself. The data was collected through a questionnaire as an instrument tool and analyzed. The results showed that most of the respondents (55%) were small farmers and only 12% of farmers were large landholders. Most of the farmers were well-aware about good yielding varieties, appropriate sowing time, seed selection, seed preparation, seed rate, and sowing methods. Farmers were also well-aware of the nutritive significance of pulses but due to the low output of its production, farmers were afraid of growing on a wide scale. The single way out of this issue is to furnish farmers with modern technologies and stimulate them to create more food within accessible resources. Most recent high-quality research is impractical until it is accurately spread to the farming community. Pakistan is one of the largest pulses producing country but still, production per acre is very low than in developed countries. It is recommended that transparently providing inputs at subsidized rates to the farmers, proper marketing facilities and effective extension campaigns may help in pulses production.</p> 2019-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 PSM