PSM Veterinary Research <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Veterinary&nbsp;Research (ISSN: 2518-2714) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of veterinary&nbsp;and animal sciences.</p> en-US (PSM Veterinary Research) (MANI MUGHAL) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Efficacy of Spinosad and Flubex against Dengue Fever Vector Aedes aegypti in Jeddah Governorate, Saudi Arabia <p style="text-align: justify;">The biological effects of both spinosad (4.7%) and flubex (diflubenzuron DT 2%) against <em>Aedes aegypti</em> <em>(Ae. aegypti</em> (L.) mosquito larvae were assessed under laboratory conditions. The LC<sub>50</sub> values of the spinosad and diflubenzuron were 0.22 ppm and 0.0019 ppm respectively, against <em>Ae. aegypti</em> larvae. The mortality rate of mosquito larvae ranged from 35- 96 % and 2-20 % for those spinosad and diflubenzuron separately. The results revealed that the spinosad formulation was highly effective against larvae comparing with flubex. Larval treatment with the IGR diflubenzuron reduced the reproductive potential of adult mosquito that emerged from these treatments by 16-84%. These results revealed that although flubex is an IGR, its larvicidal activity is better than spinosad. Further assessments and field investigation on IGRs products as insecticides alternatives should be carried out for managing <em>Ae. aegypti </em>mosquitoes<em>.</em></p> Abbas M Al-Azab, Essam A Shaalan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 21 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Sero-prevalence of Avian Reovirus in Broiler Breeders in Different Parts of India <p style="text-align: justify;">Avian Reovirus (ARV) has gained worldwide importance because it is an emerging viral disease of the poultry industry. Mostly it is a disease of young broiler chicken but various studies showed that it can affect all ages of birds. Investigation on seroprevalence of ARV was performed in past, but data was found very less and therefore study was carried out on the states of India, where maximum poultry population exists. A sum of 450 serum samples was collected from Haryana, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Telangana, and Maharashtra. The overall prevalence of ARV was found to be 8.67%. ARV was found highly prevalent in Tamil Nadu (11.76%), whereas lower prevalence in Maharashtra (7.63%). The samples were categorized according to different age groups. Results showed the occurrence of Avian Reovirus infection 11.79% in birds aging 10-20 weeks.</p> Surajit Baksi, Nirav Rao, Pravinsinh Chauhan, Ashish Chauhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 21 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Resistance of Mango Mealy Bug against Sprayed Pesticides <p>Mango mealy bug being destructive pest of mango in Pakistan. This research was conducted to observe the resistance gained by this pest in recent era against commonly sprayed pesticides. The chemicals included, were bifenthrin, cypermethrin, triazophos; each pesticide with three different concentrations of low, medium and high as compared to control. Results showed that none of the concentration was found effective against mango mealy bug under laboratory conditions. When three pesticides along with their recommended dose, medium and higher were sprayed, insect’s mortality was less in sprayed treatments as compared to control. These experiments explicitly revealed a threatening pest outbreak in mango eco-system. Further research should be carried out to understand its ongoing molecular process in insects to check its developed resistance.</p> Zunnu Raen Akhtar, Ejaz Shoukat, Muhammad Faisal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 16 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Occurrence, risk factors, and health hazards of Dictyocaulus filaria infection in goats in Qena, Egypt <p style="text-align: justify;">The lungworm infection is considered one of the main causes of respiratory tract infections among goats in various regions of the globe. Herein, we provided the first evidence of occurrence of <em>Dictyocaulus filaria</em> among goats in Qena governorate, southern Egypt. Migratory larvae in fecal samples of tested goats (n=67) were detected using modified Baermann method; the standard method for diagnosis of lungworm infection. Among goats exhibiting chronic respiratory distress, high incidence of <em>D. filaria</em> was recorded (22/67: 32.84%). Higher infection rate was observed during the seasons of winter and autumn (50% and 44%, respectively) than the summer and spring (0%, 18.8%, respectively), assuming to the favorable environmental conditions for survival of the infective 3<sup>rd</sup> stage larvae. Concerning the age, the infection rate was apparently lower in group of mid-aged (25-48 month; 25%) than young (6-24 month; 37.5%), and old aged (49-84 month; 34.8%) animals. The infected goats revealed anemia-related findings such as marked decrease in red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume percentage. Immunopathology was evidenced in increase in the number of total leucocytes, and percentages of eosinophils, and neutrophils, associated with decrease in lymphocytes. Additionally, the infected goats revealed significant increase in serum total proteins and globulins, and significant decrease in albumin/globulins ratio. This study declares the lungworm <em>D. filaria</em> as an important cause of respiratory problems among goats in Egypt. In regard to its impact on production, emphasis should be given for the prevention and control of lungworm infection in Egypt.</p> Ragab Makhlouf Mahmoud Fereig, Adel Elsayed Ahmed Mohamed, Mohammed Nour Eldin Ismail, Alsagher Omran Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 16 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Accessory Sex Glands and Testes of Stallion during Non-breeding Season <p style="text-align: justify;">In the current study, the accessory sex glands of 10 stallions were visualized with trans-rectal ultrasonography during non-breeding season using a linear array B-mode veterinary ultrasound high-frequency transducer (5-7.5 MHz). Also, the echogenicity and measurements of all scrotal contents (testes, epididymis, and spermatic cords) were evaluated using transcutaneous ultrasonography. The results revealed no significant differences (<em>P</em> &gt; 0.05) in the measurements of ampulla, vesicular gland, prostate gland and bulbourethral gland within right and left lobes in the same stallion and between different examined stallions. Additionally, there were no significant differences (<em>P</em> &gt; 0.05) in the measurements of testes, scrotal width and tail of the epididymis. Of note, there are limited variations in echogenic characters within and between stallions as most accessory genital glands have no secretions or fluid. In conclusion, the normal reference ranges defined in this study can be used in the routine clinical evaluation of reproductive organs of stallions in the non-breeding season.</p> Hamed T Elbaz, Mohamed A Marey, Emad M Abdel Razek, Ibrahim A Moustafa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 22 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial: Change Publication Frequency in 2019 <h2><strong>Editorial:</strong></h2> <p>We are pleased to announce that starting in January 2019; PSM Veterinary Research will publish tri-annually; 3 three online issues (December–March, April–July, and August–November). This change will facilitate expanded discoverability of the contents via a quarterly table of contents, indexing, and other archival services in a timely manner. The journal works on open access policy and provides immediate open access to all content in order to make research freely available to the public, and ensure a global exchange of knowledge. Articles are published online immediately after acceptance in the upcoming issues of the journal.</p> <p>PSM Veterinary Research is committed to publishing selective and high quality content that is accessible to researchers from a broad spectrum of disciplines. Topics include all aspects of veterinary and animal sciences covering infectious and non-infectious diseases, production aspects and related public health concerns, epidemiology, bacteriology and mycology, parasitology, poultry science, animal nutrition, pharmacology and toxicology, pharmaceutical science, animal psychology and behavior, animal husbandry, animal breeding and reproduction, public health and hygiene, wildlife studies, livestock production and management, veterinary surgery and radiology, veterinary medicine,&nbsp; veterinary diseases, veterinary virology, veterinary physiology, veterinary microbiology and more..</p> <p>Over the last three years, the valued contributions from the authors and the volunteer participation of the many dedicated colleagues in the peer-review process have been vital to the beginning, continuing strength and success of PSM Veterinary Research. We sincerely appreciate all your contributions and look forward to your continued enthusiasm and support in the coming years.</p> Muhammad Naeem Iqbal, Asfa Ashraf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Efficiency Comparison of Organic and Inorganic Minerals in Poultry Nutrition: A Review <p>Trend of using organic minerals over inorganic sources in poultry is increasing very rapidly as they are supposed to be more bioavailable and efficient, reducing feeding cost due to the reduction in dose rate without having negative influence on their performance. Moreover, environmental pollution is also reduced due to low excretion of mineral traces in birds’ faeces. Most commonly used and evaluated organic forms in poultry are amino acid complexes, proteinates and chelates of zinc, copper and manganese. Most of the discussed studies have indicated the positive effects of organic minerals over inorganic in both broilers and layers. The main benefit is their lower inclusion rates due to their better absorption and low output in excreta.The objective of this review is to compare the bioavailability and efficacy of organic and inorganic minerals in poultry nutrition in the light of previous research findings.</p> Muhammad Hammad Zafar, Mahpara Fatima ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Inactivated Fowl Cholera Vaccine in Chickens <p>Fowl cholera is highly prevalent bacterial disease in poultry population of India. Several areas of India have been reported with outbreaks of fowl cholera. Fowl cholera severely affects the health of flocks, causes morbidity and mortality. Drop in egg production with worsened egg quality also results due to poor health of flock. The disease is also prevalent in village chicken and vaccination is the effective tool to control the prevalence of the disease. In present research, 30 specific pathogen free birds were divided into vaccinated (Group 1; 20 birds) and control (Group 2; 10 birds) groups. Birds from group 1 were vaccinated with inactivated fowl cholera vaccine and 14 days later given booster dose. After 21 days of booster dose, both groups were challenged with virulent strain of fowl cholera disease. At 7 days interval blood was collected and serology was performed for presence of antibodies against the disease with ELISA technique. The vaccine was found effective with respect to serum titre and challenge study as well. From the research, it can be concluded that effective vaccination programs can control the prevalence fowl cholera disease.</p> Surajit Baksi, Nirav Rao, Mukandar Khan, Pravinsinh Chauhan, Ashish Chauhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 16 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000