PSM Veterinary Research <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Veterinary&nbsp;Research (ISSN: 2518-2714) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of veterinary&nbsp;and animal sciences.</p> PSM Publishers en-US PSM Veterinary Research 2518-2714 Genotyping of β-lactoglobulin Gene in Pakistani Dairy Cattle (Sahiwal Breed) by Using PCR-RFLP <p>Genetic improvement of livestock is inevitable to increase per animal productivity and meet the dietary requirements of ever growing population. To improve efficiency and economic returns in dairy farming, conventional breeding takes many years to achieve targeted production. However advances in molecular biology have made it possible to identify candidate genes influencing the milk quality as well as yield. As choice of animals for attractive genotypes has been the premise in livestock development, the current research explains the use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique to categorize bovine Beta-lactoglobulin (β-LG) gene polymorphisms in Sahiwal breed of Pakistani cattle. A segment of β-LG gene exon IV specifically (252 bp), comprised polymorphic positions for A and B allele was effectively amplified by PCR and subsequently digested with&nbsp;<em>Hae&nbsp;</em>III restriction enzyme. The yield was two types of restriction pattern i.e. 144 bp, 108 bp, 74 bp and 70 bp (four fragments) for genotype AB and similarly for genotype BB it was 108 bp, 74 bp and 70 bp(three fragments). The observed genotypes were AB and BB with a frequency of 0.60 and 0.40 respectively. Furthermore, frequency of the B allele was found higher (60%) than allele A (40%) in Sahiwal breed. Therefore β-LG genotyping by PCR-RFLP can be used in choosing superior animals for milk traits.</p> Abdul Ghaffar Muhammad Naeem Riaz Ahmad Ali Aatka Jamil Tahira Kamal Ghulam Muhammad Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-04 2017-11-04 2 2 10 13 Evaluation of Ascorbic Acid in Combination of Ivermectin in Augmentation the Recovery from Juvenile Generalized Demodicosis in Dogs: A Randomized Clinical Trial <p style="text-align: justify;">The clinical form of canine juvenile generalized demodicosis is usually related genetically with immune deficiency. In this regard, in the current study we have evaluated the impact of immunostimulant agent as ascorbic acid (AA) on the rapid recovery of dogs naturally affected by generalized demodicosis. To achieve this purpose, twenty- eight German Shepherd male dogs were used in this study and divided randomly into two groups, then received daily oral dose of ivermectin (IVR) 1% (0.5 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) alone and IVR 1% in combination with AA (500 mg per animal, twice daily) for two months, respectively. Total mite numbers, egg counts, eosinophil counts and skin lesion score were used for assessment the treatment efficacy after 30, 60, 90, and 120 days subsequent to the initial treatment. Seventeen dogs (IVR (n = 8), and IVR + AA (n = 9)) completed the full length of experiment (4- months) as 11 dogs were withdrawn due to various causes. Out of 17 dogs completing the 4 months trial, two dogs treated with IVR + AA combination therapy achieved the parasitological cure. The results revealed rapid and marked reduction in the total mite numbers and eosinophil counts treated with combination therapy in comparison with those administrated ivermectin alone. These findings exhibited the potential anti-<em>Demodex</em> effect of ivermectin when administrated in combination with immunostimulant agent and highlight the impact of an inexpensive, available and immunomodulatory agent as ascorbic acid in treatment of canine juvenile generalized demodicosis.</p> Mohamed Abdo Rizk Abdelnaser Ahmed Abdalla Shimaa Abd El-Salam El-Sayed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-17 2017-11-17 2 2 14 21 Microscopic and IFAT Based Incidence of Sarcocystis in Naturally Infected Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at Sohag, Egypt <p>The aim of the present work was to detect the incidence rate of&nbsp;<em>Sarcocystis&nbsp;</em>spp. from Egyptian Water Buffaloes (<em>Bubalus bubalis</em>) in Sohag governorate, Egypt. Blood and muscle samples (145 each) were collected from neighborhood abattoirs.&nbsp;<em>S. buffalonis</em>&nbsp;33.8%<em>, S. levinei</em>&nbsp;14.48% and<em>&nbsp;S. fusiformis</em>&nbsp;0.41% were recognized by microscopic examination and confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence antibody technique (IFAT). Results showed that 26.9% examined samples were positive by routine abattoir examination while 52.4% examined samples were positive by microscopic examination, on the other hand; 64.8% samples were positive by IFAT. We can concluded that, gross examination at the abattoirs is not adequate to present safe meat for human utilization, and it must be supported with other serological tests like IFAT, although it has a moderate specificity and high sensitivity to diagnose Sarcocystosis.</p> Amer Ragheb Abdel Aziz Fatma Abo Zakaib Ali Doaa Salman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-25 2017-12-25 2 2 22 28 Buffalos in Pakistan: Incidence and Control of Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in Naturally Infected Water Buffaloes <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>EDITORIAL</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Buffalo and cattle are playing main role in production of dairy items in Pakistan. It is our main animal in terms of milk production and has higher production potential. Buffalo farming is playing a pivotal role in the national economy of Pakistan by producing significant proportion of milk, meat and draught power. Total population of buffalo in Pakistan was 36.6 million (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2015-16). The milk production in Pakistan during 2014-2015 was 54,328 thousand tones and the contribution of buffalo was 33,137 thousand tones (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2015-16). Average milk produced by buffalo and cow was recorded as 180 and 135 liters per month, respectively (Neelam and Khan, 2017).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Water buffalo (<em>Bubalus bubalis</em>) is very important because of its high milk yield to meet the protein requirement. In Pakistan, various causes attributed to low productivity in livestock are&nbsp;due to unfavorable climate condition,&nbsp; low&nbsp;animal genetic potential, insufficient feed supplies, failure of the genetic improvement program and lack of proper healthcare facilities.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Livestock diseases are common and widespread, and an important factor contributing to low productivity. A variety of parasites particularly helminthes harbor the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals affecting the health status of animals and cause enormous economic losses to the livestock industry (Rafiullah&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2011). The effects of infections caused by parasites are decrease in milk production, reduced product quality and quantity and increase mortality rate (Gupta&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;1978; Soulsby, 1982). Therefore, it is important to control the parasites of the gastrointestinal tract through better management as in developed countries, and knowledge on prevalence of these parasites is very necessary.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A study was designed to find out the prevalence of&nbsp;<em>G. explantum</em>&nbsp;at Sihala Slaughter House, Rawalpindi. Sixty three livers were found infected by&nbsp;<em>G. explanatum</em>&nbsp;among three hundred livers examined and the prevalence rate was 21.24% (Muhammad&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2015).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In our study, a total of 289 rumens and reticulums of buffaloes were examined for the presence of&nbsp;<em>Paramphistomum cervi</em>&nbsp;by visiting local abattoirs. The results revealed that 17.3 percent buffalos were infected by&nbsp;<em>P.&nbsp; cervi</em>&nbsp;in central Punjab. Highest average worm burden was found in Sargodha and lowest in Mandi Bahauddin (Iqbal&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2013).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The histology of trematodes, collected from approximately 50 buffaloes, has been carried out for identification, resulting 25 percent&nbsp;<em>Gigantocotyle explanatum</em>infection in naturally infected water buffaloes in central Punjab. The highest average worm burden was found in Sargodha followed by Faisalabad (Iqbal&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2014a).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A total of 265 rumens and reticulums of buffaloes were examined for the presence of&nbsp;<em>Gastrothylax crumenifer</em>&nbsp;and infection rate recorded was 18.8% in central Punjab. It was found that buffaloes aged 22 years have the highest worm burden (Iqbal&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2014b).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The heavy losses due to parasitic disease cause great damage to livestock field. The epidemiological information of parasitic burden is helpful in the development of rational control measure against parasites in water buffalos. In Pakistan, basic village farmers do not have much knowledge regarding these endoparasites and as a consequence, Pakistan faces a lot of economic loss every year. So, it is required to take immediate steps for reduction of infectious rate. The availability of fresh water snails serving as intermediate host, existence of extensive water channel system and poor grazing management of animals being practiced in these areas should be managed to control the trematode infections.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">It&nbsp;is recommended that farmers&nbsp;who rear buffaloes&nbsp;should improve the provision of feeds to their animals so that the animals can have good body condition that confers some level of resistance against parasitic infections. Besides, they should be able to regularly treat their animals with the appropriate anthelmintics or vaccines if available and awareness should be&nbsp;spread on the prevention and&nbsp;control methods of gastrointestinal parasites.</p> Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Asfa Ashraf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-27 2017-12-27 2 2 33 34 Seroprevalence of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in broiler breeders in India <p>Respiratory infections in poultry are the major group of diseases which cause significant economic losses to poultry industry.&nbsp;<em>Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale&nbsp;</em>are the bacteria which cause Ornithobacteriosis (ORT) to the avian species. This bacterial infection causes respiratory symptoms and high mortality among chickens. Broilers and particularly breeders species are affected the most in farms in India and other countries worldwide. It is important to prevent the infection with proper biosecurity measures and vaccinations. But, still, the disease is prevalent in many parts of the world. In the present study, serum samples from seven states of India were collected and studied for the presence of antibodies against ORT. 74.37% samples were found positive for ORT infection. Age and season wise study was also conducted to investigate the effect of these parameters on the occurrence of the disease. The samples were divided into four age-wise groups i.e., 17-30, 31-40, 41-50 and 51-62 weeks. Samples of 41-50 weeks age showed highest positive results (87.50%) compared to other ages. Samples were divided into season-wise groups i.e., Winter, Summer, and Monsoon. Birds were found highest positive for ORT infection in monsoon (88.31%) and lowest in winter (62.20%). ORT was found highly prevalent in India, proper biosecurity measures and vaccination programs are required to prevent the spread of disease.</p> Surajit Baksi Nirav Rao Pravinsinh Chauhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-25 2017-12-25 2 2 29 32