Occurrence, risk factors, and health hazards of Dictyocaulus filaria infection in goats in Qena, Egypt
The lungworm infection is considered one of the main causes of respiratory tract infections among goats in various regions of the globe. Herein, we provided the first evidence of occurrence of Dictyocaulus filaria among goats in Qena governorate, southern Egypt. Migratory larvae in fecal samples of tested goats (n=67) were detected using modified Baermann method; the standard method for diagnosis of lungworm infection. Among goats exhibiting chronic respiratory distress, high incidence of D. filaria was recorded (22/67: 32.84%). Higher infection rate was observed during the seasons of winter and autumn (50% and 44%, respectively) than the summer and spring (0%, 18.8%, respectively), assuming to the favorable environmental conditions for survival of the infective 3rd stage larvae. Concerning the age, the infection rate was apparently lower in group of mid-aged (25-48 month; 25%) than young (6-24 month; 37.5%), and old aged (49-84 month; 34.8%) animals. The infected goats revealed anemia-related findings such as marked decrease in red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume percentage. Immunopathology was evidenced in increase in the number of total leucocytes, and percentages of eosinophils, and neutrophils, associated with decrease in lymphocytes. Additionally, the infected goats revealed significant increase in serum total proteins and globulins, and significant decrease in albumin/globulins ratio. This study declares the lungworm D. filaria as an important cause of respiratory problems among goats in Egypt. In regard to its impact on production, emphasis should be given for the prevention and control of lungworm infection in Egypt.