International Journal of Molecular Microbiology 2018-07-15T17:31:11+00:00 International Journal of Molecular Microbiology Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Molecular Microbiology (IJMM) is a peer-reviewed, open access, international scientific journal that publishes research on all aspects of molecular microbiology.</p> The Ecological and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing the Nitrification: A review 2018-06-20T06:48:38+00:00 Amjed Ginawi Yan Yunjun <p>This review focuses on the influence of the environmental factors and the human impact on the nitrification, specifically aerobic ammonia oxidation that is the degree limiting stage of nitrification and is mediated by ammonia oxidizing archaeal and bacteria (AOA/AOB). The understanding the primary drivers of ammonia oxidizing distribution and abundance in sediments are increasing interest around the globe. Many studies evaluated the environmental sediment of the communities’ ammonia oxidizing, but a few issues are known about sediments ammonia oxidizing. The sediment characteristics that have significant control in determining ammonia-oxidizing communities include ammonia substrates, pH, temperature, carbon, and oxygen, these environmental parameters represented reasons the AOA higher than the AOB in various sediments and numerous ecological, as they can inhabit possibility specialized that are unavailable to the AOB.</p> 2018-06-19T18:54:02+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Plant Defenses vs Pathogen Weapons: A Continuation of Battlefield: A Mini-review 2018-07-15T17:31:11+00:00 Sehrish Tariq Kamran Saleem <p style="text-align: justify;">Plants and their pathogen co-evolved simultaneously and therefore survive either through symbiotic or parasitic interaction. With the human civilization and increasing population, food security and food safety are of major concern. For achieving that, plants are being modified to attain maximum yield and minimum loss. Therefore, in reaction pest and pathogens also mutate themselves to evolve new tools and weapons for feeding and infection. In this race, plants have to defend for attaining yield and reproduction. Plants are blessed with many structure which minimize entry of pathogens specially cell wall, spines and thorns. Furthermore, biochemical defense in plants is highly sophisticated with many antimicrobial compounds, which trigger whole plant system to defend. Many genes incorporated in crop plants also lead to enhance biochemical defense through elicitors- receptors interaction. On the other hand, pathogens utilized toxins, enzymes, growth regulators and polysaccharides to suppress the host defense system and breakdown the resistance barriers. So its continuous race between host and pathogen but through details study and understanding of such interaction, better management strategies can be deployed.</p> 2018-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##