PSM Biological Research <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> en-US (PSM Biological Research) (MANI MUGHAL) Thu, 31 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Inter-Ethnic and Demic-Group Variations in Craniofacial Anthropometry: A Review <p>Craniofacial anthropometry plays an important role in facial structure. This review paper evaluates existing research surrounding population norms of studied facial parameters. The purpose is two-fold: (1) to determine variations in facial measurements due to demi-group or ethnic variations based on traditional (direct) caliper based and image based (indirect) anthropometric methods. (2) to compare where possible, measured facial parameters between referenced studies. Inter and intra-population variations in addition to sexual dimorphism of facial parameters such as the nose and eyes, singularly or in combination with one another, have been concluded. Ocular measurements have exhibited ethnic variations between males and females of the Saudi, Turkish, Egyptian and Iranian group. Moreover, demic variations are reported when the native language has been used a key criterion. It has been concluded that with the current state of migration and inter-demic marriages, the study of homogenous populations will prove difficult. Subsequently, this will result in ambiguous physical traits that are not representative for any one demic or ethnic population. In this paper, results for the following adult male and female populations have been discussed: African American, Azerbaijani, Caribbean, Chinese, Croatian, Egyptian, Italian, Iranian, Turkish, Saudi Arabian, Syrian and South African. The qualitative research presented serves as a knowledge base for learners and strikes up thought provoking concepts about the direction anthropometrical research is heading.</p> Shelina Khalid Jilani, Hassan Ugail, Andrew Logan Copyright (c) 2019 PSM Sat, 20 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Finite Element Analysis of Phosphate Movement through a Clayey-Sandy Soil by using Geo-Slope Software (CTRAN/W) <p style="text-align: justify;">A hypothetical 2-D numerical model of a clayey-sandy soil profile had been developed by using Geo-Slope software to analyze the water flow (SEEP/W) and phosphate movement (CTRAN/W) through the sub-surface region of the soil. Results showed that streamlines and equipotential lines are normal to each other and vectors displaying the velocity of the flow direction have the average flow rate of 1.2067 x 10<sup>-5</sup> ft<sup>3</sup>/sec/ft (0.000342 LPS). The Advection-Dispersion Analysis revealed that the adsorption of phosphate on the soil particles is linearly related to the concentration which was represented as contours with different colors. The phosphate concentration after 365 days was 0.93 gm/ft<sup>3</sup> at the toe point of the drain. The overall average velocity for the selected nodal points at head, middle and tail sections were 0.2262, 0.3997, and 0.6834 ft/day, respectively. Only the nodal points present at the tail section reached the free exit drain in between 300-365 days with an average velocity of 0.6855 ft/day. The particles present at the head and middle sections of the land were moving slowly as compared to the tail section. However, results may vary for the other types and texture of soils.</p> Imran Arshad, Clea Anne E. Vallejera, Zaheer Ahmed Khan Copyright (c) 2019 PSM Wed, 05 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Computation of Seepage and Exit Gradient through a Non-Homogeneous Earth Dam without Cut-off Walls by using Geo-Slope (SEEP/W) Software <p style="text-align: justify;">In this study, SEEP/W was used to develop a finite element model of a non-homogenous earth dam and for this purpose Hub dam was selected. Two different cases i.e. (i) with cut-off wall and (ii) without cut-off wall were studied to check the behaviour of the dam in terms of seepage flux and exit gradient respectively. The software was also used to simulate the phreatic line behaviour for both cases. The outcome of the simulated results showed that the dam is safe against piping, at its original design as the installation of a cut-off wall found working effectively in reducing internal pore water pressure within the dam and its foundation. For case (i), the phreatic line showed a normal trend as it is falling into the filter drain after passing the core with overall minimum seepage flux of order 2.1130 x 10<sup>-4</sup> ft<sup>3</sup>/sec/ft (21.54 LPH) and exit gradient at downstream toe was recorded 0.099 respectively. However, for case (ii) the dam showed an irregular behaviour as the internal pore water pressure at the subsurface region of the dam foundation was continuously increasing due to unavailability of the cut-off wall and the flow vectors move towards toe drain with high velocity and seepage flux. The overall maximum seepage flux and exit gradient was recorded for the maximum pond level without cut-off wall of order 4.6355 x 10<sup>-3</sup> ft<sup>3</sup>/sec/ft (472.54 LPH) and 0.865 respectively. The comparison results showed that without cut-off walls the seepage flux may increase about (87.314% – 87.493%) and the variation in exit gradient may increase about (48.705% - 63.353%) respectively.</p> Imran Arshad, Mohammed Muneer Babar, Clea Anne E Vallejera Copyright (c) 2019 PSM Thu, 31 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Plants’ Improvement- A Mini-Review <p style="text-align: justify;">The soil is a rich compendium of diverse organisms which have multifaceted roles in the ecological dynamics. The diversity and functional activity of the soil-borne organisms depend on the soil structure and the types of nutrients available there. From the perspectives of plants growth and development, these organisms may be beneficial, harmful or neutral. Among the organisms, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) constitute a significant and ecologically important portion which directly or indirectly corresponds to the growth improvement of plants. PGPR are of diverse types. Some of these bacteria are found in symbiotic association with hosts while others remain free living. They are efficiently involved in nitrogen fixation, phosphate, and iron solubilization, mitigation of heavy metals and other pollutants, antagonism with phytopathogens, and the production of growth promoting molecules. The net consequences of PGPR activities are growth stimulation of plants. Here we review the importance of PGPR and their role in growth improvement of cultivated crops.</p> Saira Siyar, Naila Inayat, Fida Hussain Copyright (c) 2019 PSM Sat, 20 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 White Matter: Structural and Functional Roles in Health and Disease <p>This article reviewed the literature regarding structural and functional roles of white matter in health and disease. It was found that white matter has a structure consisting of bundles that work to connect areas of gray matter in the brain. These bundles also transmit nerve impulses between neurons. Myelin, the outer coating envelop acts as an insulator and permits the jumping of electrical signals instead of passing through the axon. From a functional point of view, white matter carries the messages among various areas of gray matter through the central nervous system. The white matter is called white due to the presence of the fatty material (myelin) that makes the outer layer of axons, and accelerates the transmission of nerve signals. We showed the impacts of alcohol use and other diseases such as Alzheimer disease on white matter. Taken together, white matter has central roles in health and disease.</p> Ahed Jumah Khatib Copyright (c) 2019 PSM Wed, 05 Dec 2018 10:50:11 +0000 Cellulases Production and Application of Cellulases and Accessory Enzymes in Pulp and Paper Industry: A Review <p>Cellulases are produced from a variety of the microorganisms; include both bacteria and fungi. Solid state fermentation, liquid state fermentation and fed batch fermentation techniques are utilized for the manufacture of cellulases. Cellulases have vast applications in almost every industry and are extensively used in fabric manufacturing. Enzymes have been used in the pulp for juice making, food processing, paper manufacturing, and pharmaceutical applications. The process recycling in paper industry had great importance and its value increased day by day in writing and printing papers. Many manufacturing services in paper industry were integrated. Paper mills start with wood chipping at first, followed by pulping, bleaching, papermaking, and recycling of the past consumer products. Reduction of energy by cellulase enzyme and chemicals has been used to improve the quality of paper and help to decrease the environmental influence of the pulp production. In near future, the need of cellulases will be strongly recommended for the commercial production of bio fuels and bio energy.</p> Muhammad Imran, Sheeza Bano, Sadia Nazir, Arshad Javid, Muhammad Javaid Asad, Amara Yaseen Copyright (c) 2019 PSM Thu, 31 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Modern Stem Cell Therapy of Cardiac and Neurodegenerative Disorders: Pluses and Minuses <p style="text-align: justify;">Stem cell therapy is used for treatment of many diseases like diabetes, ischemia, Parkinson’s disease, cardiac and neurodegenerative diseases. Stem cells can be differentiated into many new types as they are actually undifferentiated cells. Cardiac disease is life threatening disorder. Any type of injury to heart muscles increase risk factors for myocardial infarction. Studies indicate that different stem cells are used for improvement of ventricular function by transplantation. New cardiac tissue cannot be formed but transplanted stem cells have paracrine effects that may be limited by teratoma formation. Brain has specific formation of substitution connection to the confined and compact action of neuronal stem cells respectively. This demonstrates nervous abnormality and series of neurodegenerative infections that shows a critical civil issue of our inhabitants. So, a competent analysis is motivated using stem cell therapy as a key. Then comparisons of different studies for treatment of different individuals who are suffering from neurodegenerative diseases are done. Different actions are taken that show aims for charge of NP afflicted individuals. This review sums up the current scenario of stem cell therapy in Cardiac and Neurodegenerative disorders.</p> Muhammad Irfan, Umar Sajjad, Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Copyright (c) 2019 PSM Thu, 31 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000