PSM Biological Research http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> PSM en-US PSM Biological Research 2517-9586 Hematological Profile in Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice Treated with Commiphora molmol Extract Compared with Praziquantel http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/170 <p style="text-align: justify;">As <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em> worms inhabit the portal triad of infected hosts, deleterious changes were encountered in the blood picture. The aim of the study is to explore the damaging hematological effects due to <em>S.mansoni</em> infection in albino mice before and after treatment with either <em>Commiphora molmol</em> extract or Praziquantel. Seventy two albino mice were recruited in this study and divided into 4 groups of 18 mice each, 54 of them were infected with <em>S.mansoni</em> cercariae.7 weeks post-infection, infected animals were treated with 500 mg/kg either as a single dose for 2 days in Praziquantel or for 5 consecutive days in <em>Commiphora molmol</em> extract. Blood samples were collected at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after treatment for assessment of complete blood counts (Hb, erythrocytes count, haematocrite value, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Platelet count, leucocytic count and differential leucocytic counts).<em>S.mansoni</em> infection resulted in multiple damaging effects of the blood profile on infected non-treated hosts as evidenced by decrease in red blood cells and platelets and rise in white cells with the advance of infection. Treatment with Praziquantel corrected the blood profile of erythrogram and the platelet count in progressive manner with advance of time after treatment more than <em>Commiphora molmol</em> Extract. This study declared that Praziquantel and <em>Commiphora molmol</em> extract were safe drugs without dverse hematological effects on infected treated mice with more ameliorative action achieved by Praziquantel than <em>Commiphora molmol</em> extract.</p> Mohammad Aziz Alkazzaz Amer Ragheb Adel Aziz Ehab K Elmahalawy Amal A Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2018-06-24 2018-06-24 3 3 77 84 Effect of Drought Stress on the Growth and Morphological Traits of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus citriodora http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/171 <p>Drought stress is the basic ecological stress in growth and development of the trees. A pot experiment was designed to analyze the growth and germination potential of<em> Eucalyptus camaldulensis </em>and <em>Eucalyptus citriodora</em> against the drought stress via completely randomized designed experiment with four replications along with four stress intervals. Seedlings were raised in pots by irrigating at four different levels i.e. 1 day (Wo), 5 day's (W1), 10 day's (W2) and 15 day's (W3). Several morphological parameters were studied. The plant height of both the species was maximum when the plants were irrigated after 1 day time interval and it gradually decreased as the irrigation interval increased. Root length varied drastically against the influence of the drought. Maximum root length 6.5 cm was observed in <em>E. camaldulensis</em> when the water was applied after 1 day interval followed by the <em>E. citriodora</em> yielding 6.1 cm of the root length against the same treatment. As the irrigation interval increased, the shoot fresh weight decreased leading to the minimum value for the shoot fresh weight at the treatment W3. Root dry weight was more as compared to <em>E. citriodora</em> for all treatments. Maximum root-shoot ratio (5.2) was observed in <em>E. camaldulensis</em> when the water was applied after 5 day interval (W1). Hence, we suggest that <em>Eucalyptus</em> plantation should not be done at fertile agricultural lands as its plantation can be very favorable in waterlogged and saline conditions.</p> Muhammad Sohail Yousaf Taimoor Hassan Farooq Irfan Ahmad Matoor Mohsin Gilani Muhammad Haroon U Rashid Narayn Prasad Gautam Waqar Islam Muhammad Asif Pengfei Wu ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2018-06-24 2018-06-24 3 3 85 91 Native Yemeni Plumbago auriculata as a Promising Antioxidant and Antifungal Plant against Different Fusarium species http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/182 <p style="text-align: justify;">Plants and plant derived metabolites are believed as rich source of antifungal and antioxidant agents, with their fewer side effects, they are finding their way into pharmaceutical derivatives. The present study was undertaken to investigate the methanolic leaves and flowers extracts of <em>Plumbago auriculata </em>for their potential activity against phytopathogens and antioxidant efficiency. The extracts were evaluated against different pathogenic <em>Fusarium</em> species; <em>F. verticilloides, F. oxysporum </em>and <em>F. solani</em> using agar well diffusion method. <em>F. oxysporum</em> showed the higher susceptibility of inhibition with all extracts, followed by <em>F. solani </em>and <em>F. verticilloides </em>in case of leaves extracts, while <em>F. verticilloides </em>was the most sensitive after <em>F. oxysporum </em>in case of flowers extracts. It was clear that 75% concentration was the most effective among all concentrations tested. In DPPH (free radical scavenging assay) for antioxidant evaluation for the plant extract. The flowers extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than those of leaves with a dose-dependent manner. This study support the use of this herbal plant as antioxidant and antifungal agent to control <em>Fusarium </em>species especially <em>F. oxysporum </em>the causative agent of <em>Fusarium </em>wilt of tomato.</p> Aziza Taj Al-Deen Hala J Al-Jobory ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2018-06-25 2018-06-25 3 3 92 98 Соmрutаtiоn оf Sеераgе аnd Еxit Grаdiеnt thrоugh а Hоmоgеnеоus Еаrth Dаm withоut Filtеr Drаin by using Gео-Slоре (SЕЕР/W) Sоftwаrе http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/198 <p style="text-align: justify;">In this study, SЕЕР/W wаs usеd tо dеvеlор а finitе еlеmеnt mоdеl оf а hоmоgеnоus еаrth dаm аnd fоr this рurроsе Hub dаm wаs sеlесtеd. Twо diffеrеnt саsеs i.е. (i) with filtеr drаin аnd (ii) withоut filtеr drаin wаs studiеd tо сhесk thе bеhаviоr оf thе dаm in tеrms оf sеераgе flux аnd еxit grаdiеnt rеsресtivеly. Thе sоftwаrе wаs аlsо usеd tо simulаtе thе рhrеаtiс linе bеhаviоr fоr bоth саsеs. Thе FЕ mоdеl wаs соmрrisеd оf fоur diffеrеnt tyреs оf еlеmеnts i.е. triаngulаr, squаrе, rесtаngulаr аnd trареzоidаl. Fоr саsе (i) thе dоmаin is disсrеtizеd intо а mеsh by 12,346 еlеmеnts thrоugh рlасеmеnt оf nоdаl роints 12,495 аnd fоr саsе (ii) 12,305 еlеmеnts аnd 12,399 nоdаl роints wаs usеd. Thе оutсоmе оf thе simulаtеd rеsults shоwеd thаt thе dаm is sаfе аgаinst рiрing, аt its оriginаl dеsign аs thе instаllаtiоn оf а filtеr drаin fоund wоrking еffесtivеly in rеduсing intеrnаl wаtеr рrеssurе within thе dаm аnd its fоundаtiоn. Fоr саsе (i), thе рhrеаtiс linе shоwеd а nоrmаl trеnd аs it is fаlling intо thе filtеr drаin with оvеrаll minimum sеераgе flux оf 2.513 x 10<sup>-4</sup> ft<sup>3</sup>/sес/ft аnd еxit grаdiеnt аt dоwnstrеаm tое 0.351 rеsресtivеly. Hоwеvеr, fоr саsе (ii) thе dаm shоwеd аn irrеgulаr bеhаviоr аs thе рhrеаtiс linе trеnd wаs fоund аbnоrmаl аs it сuts thе dоwnstrеаm slоре оf thе dаm аnd аbоut (65.419% – 71.085%) mоrе еxit grаdiеnt wаs rесоrdеd fоr еасh sсеnаriо.</p> Imrаn Аrshаd Muhаmmеd Munееr Bаbаr ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2018-07-19 2018-07-19 3 3 99 105 In Vitro Improved Production of Monoclonal Antibody against Zearalenone in Supplemented Cell Culture Media http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/209 <p>Zearalenone (ZEN) is a phenolic resorcylic acid lactone, produced by several Fusarium species causing reproductive disorders such as abortion and stillbirth in livestock resulting from hyperestrogenism. A monoclonal antibody (mcAb) specific to zearalenone was produced from hybridoma cell line 5A8. It was generated by the fusion of Sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from Balb/c mice with highest-titer (1: 64,000, v/v). The mice were immunized intraperitoneally with zearalenone–cationic bovine serum albumin (ZEN-cBSA). ZEN-cOVA conjugate was used as coating antigen to test titer of mice serum. Hybridoma cells were grown on cell culture media supplemented with carbohydrates (CHO) respectively. Monoclonal antibody produced by hybridoma in vitro belongs to the immunoglobulin subtype IgG1 with specific antibody titer 0.70. The most effective culture medium for hybridoma clones was supplemented with maltose that achieved best titer at 1.485 as determined by icELISA. The use of supplemented cell culture media is an effective approach for enhanced production of monospecific-antibody, better hybridoma growth and viability.</p> Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Asfa Ashraf Sumei Ling Shihua Wang ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2018-08-17 2018-08-17 3 3 106 110 Leaf Image Processing and Detection: Computer-based Aid for Plant Identification and Classification http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/213 <p style="text-align: justify;">Identification/recognition of leaf is the first choice for plant taxonomist as well as common men. Plant taxonomists use different criteria for selection and identification of any plant species. Over the years, scientists used different processing tools to recognize plant images for identification of plant characteristics. To unveil the differences in the leaf Morphology with respect to plant identification, Faisalabad district was visited and surveyed for distribution of plant species. We developed leaf recognition software to facilitate the novice to understand the taxonomy of plant by just highlighting the attributes of plant leaves. A pipe and filter software architecture were applied and executed to implement this software. After precise confirmation, data regarding leaf attributes was extracted and used as a base for this software. We evaluated our system in a very extensive manner and also checked the impact. 153 leaf images prototype data was evaluated both with as well as without considering leaf self-intersection. The objective was to know whether an unknown leaf falls in one of the families and represent which plant group. Our system detected the most similar plant to the input options and can facilitate the users to reach a final conclusion. The final results pointed out a capable presentation of this software and its advantage over the classical method.</p> Fiza Fida Muhammad Rizwan Talib Nauman Ali Khan Muhammad Aqeel Naeem Iqbal Faiza Fida Muhammad Zahid Muhammad Arshad Ali Noman ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2018-08-20 2018-08-20 3 3 132 139 Influence of Discharge and Сhаnnеl Gеоmеtry on Sеераgе Losses from Sесоndаry Саnаl http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/216 <p style="text-align: justify;">Sеераgе is thе mоst serious fоrms оf wаtеr loss in аn irrigаtiоn саnаl nеtwоrk. Sеераgе lоss mоstly dереnd оn thе сhаnnеl gеоmеtry. Еxсеssivе sеераgе lоssеs саn саusе wаtеr lоgging аnd sоil sаlinity duе tо whiсh thе сultivаblе аrе rеduсеd, аnd rеsults in а lоss оf роtеntiаl сrор рrоduсtiоn. In this рареr, sеераgе lоss frоm а (Sаrki Minоr) thаt оff tаkеs frоm Shаhu brаnсh оf Jаmаrао саnаl wаs dеtеrminеd. Rеlеvаnt hydrаuliс dаtа wаs rесоrdеd аt strаtеgiс lосаtiоns аnd sеераgе lоssеs wеrе mеаsurеd by inflоw- оutflоw mеthоd rеsресtivеly. Linеаr rеgrеssiоn wаs еmрlоyеd tо dеvеlоре еmрiriсаl rеlаtiоns fоr соmрuting sеераgе lоssеs with rеsресt tо сhаnnеl gеоmеtry. АА-Tyре аnd рygmy сurrеnt mеtеrs wаs usеd tо mеаsurе thе disсhаrgе аt thе diffеrеnt sесtiоn. Thе rесоrdеd dаtа оf hydrаuliс сhаrасtеristiсs wаs соrrеlаtеd using linеаr rеgrеssiоn аnаlysis tо dеvеlор аn еmрiriсаl еquаtiоn fоr sеераgе lоssеs with сhаnnеl gеоmеtry раrаmеtеrs.Thе results rеvеаlеd thаt thе mаximum sеераgе lоssеs wеrе аt 0-5RD (4%) fоllоwеd by 5-10RD (3.4%), 10-15RD (3.4%) 15-20RD (3.5%), аnd thеn 20-25RD (2.9%) аnd оvеr аll sеераgе lоssеs wаs 17% in thе minоr. Statistical analysis (LRA) shows significantly positive relationship at (Р&lt;0.05) fоr sеераgе lоssеs and disсhаrgе (r<sup>2</sup>=0.962), wеttеd реrimеtеrs (r<sup>2</sup>=0.943), flоw аrеа (r<sup>2</sup>=0.914) аnd tор width (r<sup>2</sup>=0.967). Thеsе еquаtiоns соuld bе usеd tо еstimаtе саnаl sеераgе lоssеs withоut gоing thrоugh thе соnvеntiоnаl mеthоd.</p> Nооr Mustаfа Shаikh Munir Аhmеd Mаngriо Mаshооquе Аli Tаlрur Mushtаq Аhmеd Issаni ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 3 3 140 145 Plants as Antidiabetic Agents: Traditional Knowledge to Pharmacological Validation http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/210 <p>Diabetes is the most devastating and serious of all metabolic diseases. The available natural remedies are considered as a valuable source of therapeutic agents. A scientific validation of the reported antidiabetic plants on the basis of their traditional use may pave the way for the development of novel and effective antidiabetic drugs. Such approaches are the necessity of the day because the available medicines are insufficient to manage all the consequences of diabetes, and the economic problems and a shortage of current therapies in most developing countries. This review comprises information about antidiabetic medicinal plants of Pakistan with respect to traditional knowledge. The article also includes the <em>in-vitro </em>or <em>in-vivo</em> potential, toxicity, mode of action, and perspective for future research. This effort may serve as a leading point for the formulation of novel herbal mixtures, development of antidiabetic drugs or their precursors.</p> Manzoor Ullah Madiha Zaynab Mahpara Fatima Safdar Abbas Yasir Sharif Taimoor Hassan Farooq Muhammad Hammad Zaffar Razi Ullah Saad Ullah Khan Wahid Hussain Ihsan Ullah Shabnam Shaheen Maroof Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2018-08-18 2018-08-18 3 3 111 119 Leaf Image Recognition Based Identification of Plants: Supportive Framework for Plant Systematics http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/212 <p>Plant life is incomplete without proper leaf orientation and morphology<strong>. </strong>Leaf is the first identity of any plant species. Identification of leaf is the first choice for plant taxonomist as well as common men. Generally, taxonomists and common people face difficulties of different nature during plant identification. Botanists are overwhelmed with fresh data e.g. DNA sequencing to the complex appearance of traits, species phylogeny, environmental influences and outcomes, molecular phenotyping etc. Advancements in biological sciences over last three decades and amplified significance of determining the relationship between structure and function have proved worth of imaging technology as an emerging discipline. Leaf image classification is the best choice for plant taxonomy. Generally, one can easily make over the images of leaves to a system and that computer automatically generates attributes by processing images. Earlier, input images were first converted into grayscale and then transformed to a binary image. Other than plant classification studies with help of image recognition, the same technique can be very supportive for detecting diseased plants in a field. In this article, we have focused on the developments related to image processing and its implementation for plant science research. Leaf image processing has been focused with the help of reported literature in related scientific domains.</p> Fiza Fida Muhammad Ramzan Talib Faiza Fida Naeem Iqbal Muhammad Aqeel Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Ali Noman ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2018-08-18 2018-08-18 3 3 125 131 Molecular Docking of 3,7-Dihydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one as a LOX Inhibitory Compound http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/211 <p>The present study was carried out to explore phytochemically and pharmacologically the medicinal plant botanically classified as <em>Millettia ovalifolia. </em>The structure of the isolated compound 3,7-Dihydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one was confirmed by modern spectroscopic techniques besides its comparison with analytical data available in literature. The compound was further studied for lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity and docking studies. The compound was found to reveal important LOX inhibitory potential with the IC<sub>50</sub> value 31.92±0.02 μM.&nbsp; The molecular docking study further showed the important molecular interactions between the compound and LOX displaying encouraging activity for more optimization as an approaching anti-inflammatory lead compound. The results showed that this plant is very significant and can act as a source to treat inflammation.</p> Taj Ur Rehman Muhammad Aurang Zeb Wajiha Liaqat Wei-Lie Xiao ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2018-08-18 2018-08-18 3 3 120 124