Inter-Ethnic and Demic-Group Variations in Craniofacial Anthropometry: A Review

  • Shelina Khalid Jilani University of Bradford, School of Engineering and Informatics, Centre of Visual Computing, Richmond Building, Richmond Road, Bradford, BD7 1DP. United Kingdom, (UK).
  • Hassan Ugail University of Bradford, School of Engineering and Informatics, Centre of Visual Computing, Richmond Building, Richmond Road, Bradford, BD7 1DP. United Kingdom, (UK).
  • Andrew Logan University of Bradford, School of Optometry and Vision Science, Richmond Building, Richmond Road, Bradford, BD7 1DP. United Kingdom, (UK).
Keywords: Face, craniofacial, anthropometry, population data, demic-group, ethnicity.

Abstract

Craniofacial anthropometry plays an important role in facial structure. This review paper evaluates existing research surrounding population norms of studied facial parameters. The purpose is two-fold: (1) to determine variations in facial measurements due to demi-group or ethnic variations based on traditional (direct) caliper based and image based (indirect) anthropometric methods. (2) to compare where possible, measured facial parameters between referenced studies. Inter and intra-population variations in addition to sexual dimorphism of facial parameters such as the nose and eyes, singularly or in combination with one another, have been concluded. Ocular measurements have exhibited ethnic variations between males and females of the Saudi, Turkish, Egyptian and Iranian group. Moreover, demic variations are reported when the native language has been used a key criterion. It has been concluded that with the current state of migration and inter-demic marriages, the study of homogenous populations will prove difficult. Subsequently, this will result in ambiguous physical traits that are not representative for any one demic or ethnic population. In this paper, results for the following adult male and female populations have been discussed: African American, Azerbaijani, Caribbean, Chinese, Croatian, Egyptian, Italian, Iranian, Turkish, Saudi Arabian, Syrian and South African. The qualitative research presented serves as a knowledge base for learners and strikes up thought provoking concepts about the direction anthropometrical research is heading.

Published
2018-10-20
How to Cite
Jilani, S., Ugail, H., & Logan, A. (2018). Inter-Ethnic and Demic-Group Variations in Craniofacial Anthropometry: A Review. PSM Biological Research, 4(1), 6-16. Retrieved from http://journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/225
Section
Articles